Book Title
Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform 2012 Election Edition 11th Edition

SOC 43179

July 16, 2017
In U.S. v. Lopez, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress lacked constitutional authority
under the __________clause to regulate guns within 1,000 feet of a school.
a. necessary and proper
b. commerce
c. elastic
d. supremacy
e. reserved powers
Which of the following is an example of Max Weber's merit principle?
a. citizens evaluating political candidates based on personal characteristics
b. citizens evaluating political candidates based on candidates' work experience
c. agencies hiring people based on their performance on entrance exams
d. agency officials evaluating a policy proposal based on its merits
e. the president evaluating a policy proposal based on its merits
What event marked the end of the Cold War?
a. dtente
b. the collapse of the Soviet Union
c. the signing of the SALT II Treaty
d. the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
e. the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis
The Articles of Confederation required __________ consent from the states for
a. three-fifths
b. unanimous
c. two-thirds
d. majority
e. three-fourths
Which of these statements best characterizes the effects of the recent economic crisis?
a. Americans have greater trust in the ability of corporations to be self-regulating.
b. Most small businesses have experienced renewed prosperity and growth.
c. The Federal Reserve has kept interest rates high to encourage economic investment.
d. The federal budget deficits decreased, while the national debt increased.
e. The overall influence of the federal government in the economy has increased.
Which group's major function is to help presidents execute laws and make decisions?
a. the White House staff
b. the Executive Office of the President
c. the first lady
d. the Cabinet
e. the Supreme Court
Under the spoils system, who was awarded jobs in the federal bureaucracy?
a. those who scored highest on aptitude tests
b. those who did not affiliate with a political party
c. those who previously served in the military
d. those who previously held elected office
e. those who helped candidates win election
The United States engaged in which of the following military conflicts in order to
prevent the spread of communism?
a. World War I
b. World War II
c. the Vietnam War
d. the Persian Gulf War
e. the global war on terrorism
Courts provide a statement of the legal reasoning behind their decisions in written
a. briefs
b. arguments
c. opinions
d. laws
e. pamphlets
In what year was the U.S. Constitution ratified?
a. 1776
b. 1797
c. 1791
d. 1788
e. 1777
Which plan called for a one-house legislature and multi-person executive?
a. the Ohio Plan
b. the Connecticut Plan
c. the Maryland Plan
d. the Virginia Plan
e. the New Jersey Plan
Which of the following is a branch of the U.S. government?
a. Congress
b. Supreme Court
c. presidency
d. legislative
e. Senate
Which of the following philosophers greatly influenced the colonists' views on the role
of government?
a. John Dewey
b. John Locke
c. Martin Heidegger
d. Michael Foucalt
e. George Berkley
Which of the following entities is responsible for setting interest rates in the United
a. the Congress
b. the Congressional Budget Office
c. the Executive Office of the President
d. the Federal Reserve Board
e. the Office of Management and Budget
The __________ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at
the beginning of each term.
a. conference committee
b. electoral college
c. leadership conference
d. party caucus
e. party conference
The Fourteenth Amendment attempted to guarantee which of the following to former
a. forty acres of farmland and a mule
b. free university education
c. economic equality with whites
d. citizenship rights
e. debt forgiveness
__________ powers are shared by the federal and state governments.
a. Concurrent
b. Constitutional
c. Federal
d. Libertarian
e. Unified
Which Article of the Constitution created the federal judiciary?
a. Article III
b. Article II
c. Article VI
d. Article I
e. Article IX
Which of the following is an example of a categorical grant?
a. Funds provided by Congress to the states for education generally.
b. Funds provided by Congress to the states for substance abuse prevention.
c. Funds provided by Congress to the states for transportation infrastructure.
d. Funds provided by Congress to the states to enhance science instruction in a
low-income area.
e. Funds provided by Congress to the states to promote the physical health of citizens.
The Supreme Court has ruled that states can limit abortions if the regulations do not
pose which of the following?
a. a bar to equal protection
b. a due process violation
c. a prior restraint
d. an undue burden
e. a substantial inconvenience
One of the most long-standing and dramatic regional differences in the United States is
between which of the following?
a. Midwest and West
b. North and West
c. South and West
d. North and South
e. East and West
Which of the following has as its primary responsibility conducting surveillance about
the inner workings of countries across the world?
a. the Department of Defense
b. the secretary of state
c. the Central Intelligence Agency
d. the World Trade Organization
e. the Marshall Plan
What did George Gallup mean when he said that public opinion polls 'speed up the
process of democracy"?
a. that polls define issues of concern to the public
b. that polls make elections run more smoothly
c. that polls accurately predict election outcomes
d. that politics without polls is undemocratic
e. that laws sail through the legislative process if public opinion supports them
Which of the following statements about the relationship between political knowledge
and political participation is true?
a. Increases in political knowledge lead to decreases in political participation.
b. Increases in political participation lead to decreases in political knowledge.
c. Decreases in political participation lead to increases in political knowledge
d. Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.
e. Increases in political knowledge have no effect on political participation.
What is the name given to the power of the courts to interpret, and overturn, the actions
of the executive and legislative branches?
a. original jurisdiction
b. strict construction
c. judicial review
d. precedent
e. stare decisis
Which of the following groups would be most likely to have influence over
non-ideological legislation?
a. party, constituents, and congressional staff
b. party, constituents, and special interest groups
c. party, constituents, and colleagues in Congress
d. congressional staff and colleagues in Congress
e. congressional staff and party
Campaign consultants were first used in campaigns in the __________.
a. 1920s
b. 1930s
c. 1940s
d. 1950s
e. 1960s
Upon taking office in 2009, which of the following did President Obama advocate to
deal with the economic crisis?
a. dropping interest rates
b. increasing government spending
c. lowering taxes
d. raising interest rates
e. reducing taxes
Which presidential power gives the president the ability to control what happens inside
departments and agencies during their terms and to shape the federal judiciary
(including the Supreme Court) far into the future?
a. appointment
b. veto
c. pardon
d. take care
e. impeachment
In which event was there congressional oversight?
a. the approval of President Obama's 2008 budget
b. the financial audit of Ohio in 2010
c. the Line Item Veto Act of 1996
d. the Supreme Court nomination of Clarence Thomas
e. the Watergate scandal
During a rapidly developing national security crisis, who is the U.S. president most
likely to turn to for advice?
a. the House Committee on Foreign Affairs
b. the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
c. the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
d. the United Nations Security Council
e. the National Security Council
Researchers refer to the unintended influence of the questioner on respondents during
in-person interviews as what?
a. interviewee bias
b. interviewee influence
c. interviewer bias
d. interviewer corruption
e. interviewer influence
Under __________, jobs in the federal bureaucracy are awarded on the basis of skills
and expertise.
__________ federalism is defined as a flexible relationship between the national and
state government in which both work together on a variety of issues and programs.
The __________ scandal in the 1970s prompted Congress to enact serious campaign
finance regulation.
What are the differences between the primary and general election campaigns?
The __________ is the counterpart to the majority leader in the House opposition party.
Explain how presidents can check judicial power.
Why do incumbents have such high reelection rates? What are the advantages and
disadvantages of having an incumbent representing you? In your opinion, is having a
majority of incumbents good or bad for the health of the United States democracy?
Justify your answer.
How would conservative or liberal political ideology affect one's thinking about
same-sex marriage? Would conservative and social conservative viewpoints be the
same? Why or why not?
In 2010, Homeland Security provided Wyoming with over twice the funding per capita
to combat terrorism than more populous and vulnerable states like New York. Despite
the seeming misappropriation of Patriot Act funding, attempts to correct the distribution
formula have floundered, as representatives from smaller states blocked amendments.
Analyze this issue by considering the trustee model versus the delegate model of
Discuss concerns of the Framers in designing Congress through the Constitution. How
is the legislature empowered? How is it constrained?
Describe the system of checks and balances created by the Framers.
The Constitution specifies that the presiding officer of the Senate is the vice president;
however, the __________ presides in the vice president's absence.
Terrorism is a technique used to effect political change by instilling __________ among
the general public.
Explain why today's federalism is or is not an effective form of government for the
United States. Be specific in supporting your argument.

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