Book Title
Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice 11th Edition

Psych 42526

August 22, 2017
In discussing the ethics of behavior modification techniques, your text author suggests
that these methods:
a) should only be used under supervision of a clinical or school psychologist.
b) are ethical, but not powerful enough to use with disruptive students.
c) can lead to overcontrol of student behavior.
d) frequently injure students' self-esteem through excessive use of punishment.
Effective teaching occurs best when a teacher is prepared with:
a) Knowledge of subject matter and students' background information.
b) Subject matter and school expectations
c) Knowledge of subject matter and the skills to share that knowledge
d) Knowledge of subject matter, enthusiasm, and a positive attitude
Mr. Allen's class is discussing potential solutions to world hunger. He has asked his
students to come up with as many solutions to solving the world hunger problem as
they can think of, no matter how seemingly unrealistic. What is this problem solving
process called?
a) brainstorming
b) critical thinking
c) feedback
d) wasted time
Mr. Romanowski gives an essay a C. Then he realizes that the essay is not Michael's it
is Michelle's. A grade of C is not what Mr. Romanowski expects of Michelle, so he
takes another look and finds some ideas in the essay that he didn't notice before. Now
he sees it as a B essay and assigns Michelle a B. Michelle is benefitting from:
a) formative evaluation.
b) backward planning.
c) clang.
d) a halo effect.
A multimedia approach has been found to enhance student learning only if:
a) The students are familiar with multimedia
b) The students have computers at home
c) The text and visuals directly support each other
d) The students are entertained
Our book tells us about a third-grade teacher who continued to work with students
instead of merely waiting in the hallway to use the library. This teacher helped students
develop the perception that:
a) patience is a virtue and that schools need to help teach it.
b) school is for learning, not for marking time.
c) learning need not be organized.
d) teachers need to manage their time better.
Which of the following is true about choral responding?
a) It is overused by teachers.
b) It is more effective for learning than individual questioning.
c) It is recommended primarily for questions having only one correct answer.
d) It should be oral and audible, not conveyed through gestures.
Which of the following types of rewards are recommended for home-based
reinforcement programs?
a) Change of a grade
b) Receiving a special gift or privilege
c) Release from a homework assignment
d) Extra credit points
A student is caught talking about during a test, a behavior that breaks a class rule.
Another student in Piaget's autonomous stage of morality is likely to react in which of
the following ways?
a) Side with the teacher's decision.
b) View any punishment as deserved.
c) Protect the offender, regardless of circumstances.
d) Listen to the offender's rationale for the behavior.
The stages of personal and social development are played out in constant interaction
with others and with society as a whole. During initial stages, the interactions are
primarily with:
a) parents and other family members.
b) the school.
c) social networks.
d) the individual.
What type of computer program holds an encyclopedia?
a) Computer-assisted instruction program
b) Spreadsheet
c) Hypertext
d) Database
An example of the Vygotsky notion of scaffolding would be:
a) A mother helping a child learn to ride a bike
b) Students taking a test
c) A teacher passing out new supplies
d) A father taking his children for a ride in the car.
When instruction is high in quality, the information presented makes sense to students,
interests them and:
a) is quickly and easily mastered.
b) is challenging to apply.
c) is within the Zone of Proximal Development.
d) is easy to remember and apply.
What is the related information called that appears when a computer user clicks on a
word or picture?
a) Hyper media
b) Databases
c) Computer assisted instruction
d) Tutorial instruction
Which of the following statements is a critical principle of assessment?
a) Assessment and objectives must be clearly linked.
b) Affective objectives must be assessed.
c) Everything that is taught must be assessed.
d) Standardized tests should be used to measure general classroom learning.
When would it be most appropriate for a school psychologist to employ an aptitude test
rather than an achievement test?
a) to suggest ways to remediate specific deficits in knowledge
b) to yield information on how well a student has learned a skill
c) to identify or assess students for possible placement in special programs
d) to identify styles of cognition and learning
How can the reliability of test results best be increased?
a) Make items difficult.
b) Increase the length of the test.
c) Make items easy.
d) Replace multiple-choice items with essay questions.
Mr. Witte has been using whole-class discussion but decides to try small-group
discussion. What change will Mr. Witte need to make?
a) With small-group discussion, the topics will have to be less controversial.
b) Small-group discussion will require more direct teacher involvement.
c) Mr. Witte will need to appoint group leaders.
d) Mr. Witte will need less time to prepare students for the topic to be discussed.
A student plays the role of the class clown. The teacher isolates the student from peers
using time out. Which of the following statements about this practice is true?
a) The strategy is inappropriate because the student will receive sympathy from the
b) The strategy is appropriate because it deprives the student of an audience.
c) The strategy is appropriate because it directly applies the Premack principle.
d) The strategy is inappropriate because the student will continue to misbehave out of
What is the primary advantage of word processing over paper-and-pencil composition?
a) Students write more and take greater pride in their writing
b) Students are able to improve their keyboarding skills
c) It is easier to read and grade
d) Word processing files are easy to save and e-mail to parents
A teacher tries to help a student recall an event that took place during a field trip to the
natural history museum by saying, "Remember, it was the time when you went off to
see the skeletons." Which memory component was most directly involved?
a) Short-term memory
b) Massed practice
c) Episodic memory
d) Semantic memory
Studies showing the effects of schooling in raising intelligence scores support an
interpretation of intelligence as:
a) genetically influenced.
b) an aptitude rather than an ability.
c) environmentally influenced.
d) general ability.
What is the name for the component of memory that holds current thoughts?
a) Permanent memory
b) Working memory
c) Episodic memory
d) Sensory register
A study of teachers' actions at the beginning of the school year was correlated with
students' behaviors later in the year. The study found that effective teachers expected
students to:
a) work in small groups the first day of school.
b) do their most difficult assignments within the first few days, so that the rest of the
year would seem easy.
c) already know classroom procedures, from experience in previous years.
d) get right to work on the first day of school.
An English teacher wants students to begin writing paragraphs on
various topics. How should the teacher proceed in explaining the
parts of paragraph construction?
a) Allow the student to write in whatever manner he or she chooses.
b) Reinforce only the behaviors that demonstrate the final skill.
c) Have students write entire paragraphs, then hand them in so the
teacher can score them on grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
d) Teach the skills step-by-step, gradually shaping the final skill.
This part of long-term memory is responsible for the storage of the ability and
knowledge to do activities.
a) Episodic memory
b) Semantic memory
c) Procedural memory
d) Sensory registry
A teacher can help a student with disabilities succeed in the regular classroom by
adapting instruction to the student's individual needs. There are three instructional
adaptations discussed in our text. Isolating concepts within new material typifies which
type of adaptation?
a) Communication
b) Time
c) Content
d) Placement
Which of the following statements concerning comparative grading is correct?
a) The grading of comparative evaluations on course content should make some
provision for effort.
b) Comparative evaluations are currently considered unnecessary.
c) Comparative evaluations must emphasize fair, reliable assessment of student
d) Comparative evaluations must be conducted frequently.
When assigning material that is not interesting to all students, the teacher must try to
enhance student motivation to learn. To prevent student confusion, teachers must:
a) assign simple projects.
b) read aloud as students follow in texts.
c) express clear expectations.
d) never assign uninteresting topics.
A teacher spot-checks how students are doing by walking around the
room, selecting students to observe at random and then reinforcing
those who are working well. What type of schedule is being used?
a) Variable ratio
b) Fixed interval
c) Variable interval
d) Fixed ratio
In classical conditioning, the object or event that automatically elicits
a behavior before the conditioning takes place is referred to as the:
a) unconditioned response.
b) conditioned response.
c) unconditioned stimulus.
d) neutral stimulus.
Self-esteem refers to how an individual:
a) perceives his or her strengths.
b) evaluates his or her strengths.
c) develops his or her strengths.
d) shares his or her strengths.
Because objectives are stated in terms of how they will be measured, it is clear that
objectives are closely linked to:
a) comprehension.
b) knowledge.
c) analysis.
d) assessment.
Discuss the impact of time on the quality of instruction. Name two factors that impact
the amount of time available for learning. Discuss the factors that negatively impact
time for learning. How can you address these factors in a proactive manner? What are
some steps you can take to protect instruction time?
Mr. Joon, a middle school health teacher, heard many horror stories about Stuart from
his colleagues over the years. "Just wait until you get Stuart!" they said. It has finally
happened. Stuart's name appears on Mr. Joon's class roster for the fall term. As Mr. Joon
makes out the seating chart for his first period health class, he puts Stuart in the front
center row where he can keep close watch. How might Mr. Joon's behavior create the
discipline problem he is trying to avoid?
Jim Grover's eighth graders are engaged in a cooperative learning task. He expected a
high level of interest, but the students are restless. Jim's observations are puzzling.
In the "wolves" group, Mick and Rick are whispering with their backs to the group. In
the "manatees," Ginger is looking out the window, and she is very pale. The "hyenas"
are discussing the topic, but keep getting sidetracked in arguments over who came up
with the good ideas. Finally, two of the three "otters" who are not absent today are
sitting staring at Marty, the third, who keeps standing up and then sitting down, at a
rapid pace.
Jim's students may have current needs that are getting priority over his learning
objectives. Identify four of those needs, based on the students' behavior. Using at least
two levels of Maslow's hierarchy, explain how the students' needs affect their
motivation to be on-task in Jim's lesson.
For one of Jim's groups, suggest a motivational strategy that would address the
problem, and explain why Maslow would expect it to work.
Use a classroom example to illustrate the technique Skinner called
shaping. Include a brief description of the learners and the setting.
1. the reinforcement used,
2. the target behavior,
3. what the learners are capable of at the outset, and
4. several responses that function as successive approximationsto the
desired behavior.
Jim Bagley, principal of West High School, opened the morning paper before starting to
work for the day. He read that East High School, the other secondary school in a large
suburban community, scored higher on the Pre-Scholastic Achievement Test (Pre-SAT)
than did West high. The story Jim read noted that East High scored third in the state
while West High scored seventh. The principal from East High was quoted as saying,
"We're very pleased with our test scores. They certainly show the public that we're
doing a good job."
Jim was concerned about the public's reaction to such a story and vowed to find a way
to improve standardized test scores at West High.
As test time rolled around again, Mr. Bagley had a plan. In past years, all of West High
students were notified of and allowed to take the Pre-SAT, and many of them did. This
time Mr. Bagley and the school counselor went to all of the advanced placement classes
to announce that the test would be offered. No one else was told about the test.
Mr. Bagley was pleased on test day as most of the school's "best and brightest" were
there, but few others. Today, Jim Bagley opens the paper and reads the headlines: "West
High Is Best In State." Discuss some of the issues brought forth in the case, including
reporting and interpreting standardized test scores.
Our book asserts that if only the quality of lectures mattered in terms of effective
instruction, we could probably find the best lecturers in the world, record their lessons,
and show the videos to students. Why would video lessons alone not work very well?
Secondary educators need to be sensitive to problems that face adolescents. What are
some of the problems and how can teachers help adolescents who are experiencing
Distinguish aptitude tests from achievement tests, comparing their general purposes,
describing an example of each (identify a specific test) and indicating an advantage of
each in a specific context.
Using the guidelines below, analyze an example of punishment. Use
an example based on your personal observations; choose an example
in which punishment was used to control a student's (or a child's)
What consequence was used in your "case"? Classify the
consequencewhat type of punishment was used? Explain any
operant-conditioning terms used in your answer.
Explain why the punisher might have chosen the form of punishment
used. Evaluate the effectiveness of the punishment, including any
unintentional effect on the learner.
Suggest an alternative to punishment that could be used in a
situation like the one in your example. Identify any consequences or
techniques used in your alternate solution. Identify at least one
drawback or pitfall that might be encountered in implementing your
Davis Brookline is the newly appointed chair of the history department at Cool Ridge
High School, which is a large, underfunded, urban school. On the first day of the new
academic year, Davis meets with his 10 history colleagues. Some of them are seasoned
teachers, some are new to the district, and some are new to teaching. "We're going to do
things differently this year, people," he tells his colleagues. "Over the summer, I
attended a workshop about taking the classroom back from students. We talked about
teachers' rights, teacher control, and assertive and firm discipline. Things have gotten
out of control here at Cool Ridgestudents have too much powerand I intend to regain
One of Davis Brookline's colleagues asks, "What do you mean you intend to regain
control? You sound a little like a drill sergeant, Davis."
"Exactly!" stated Davis. "This history department is going to be tough. Students will
have to earn each and every grade they get the hard waythrough drill and practice and
weekly written tests, which we will grade on a curve. Those students who don't get in
line will pay the consequences."
"Don't we have any say about how we want to teach?" asked another colleague. "I don't
agree that your method is the best way to reach students, especially some who have
outside problems to deal with."
"We're not helping students by letting them off the hook. Yes, some have problems, but
getting tough is the only way to teach them to survive in this city."
What are some of the issues raised in the above scenario? How do Davis Brookline's
beliefs about teaching compare to constructivist approaches to instruction?
Consider the following research finding:
Finding A: It was reported that students who are assigned more homework earn higher
- What type of research is this?
- How strongly does Finding A support the conclusion that spending time on homework
causes students to earn higher grades?
Finding B: It was reported that students who own cell phones earn higher grades.
- How strongly does Finding B support the conclusion that owning a cell phone results
in students earning higher grades?
- In what way do these two findings differ? Does one finding tell us more than the other
about how students earn higher grades?
What does the research say about the effectiveness of cooperative learning as compared
with more traditional teaching methods?
You are a teacher who is in the middle of a short lecture when you notice two students
whispering at the back of the room. Using the principle of least intervention, what
would you do?
The principle of least intervention has been described as the Ladder of Discipline.
Teachers start at the lowest rung, and reserve the highest rungs for the most extreme
behaviors. Describe a ladder of discipline with at least six rungs. Make each rung one
very concrete, specific action. Explain how each rung works. Briefly compare the
implementation of your ladder by an experienced teacher, to how it might go for a new,
unpracticed teacher.
Suzanne and Pedro got D's on their quizzes. To Suzanne, Mr. Banister says "What
happened to you? Did you forget to study?" To Pedro he says "Okay, that's a pretty
good score for you." The two students then make attributions: influenced by the
teacher's comments, they explain their poor performance to themselves. Which student
is more likely to make an ability attribution? An effort attribution? For each of the
students, explain how the teacher's comment influenced the type of attribution made.
Then explain how the type of attribution made will influence the student's expectations
for success in the future.
How do summative evaluations and formative evaluations differ?
How is small-group discussion different from whole-class discussion? What is the role
of the leader during a small-group discussion activity?
Use Erikson's theory to draw a contrast between children of high school age and
children of elementary school age. How do their day-to-day concerns differ? For each
of these age groups, describe a scenario in which a teacher's awareness of how
Erikson's stages affect individuals might be beneficial to a student.