PHYSICS 95551

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Authors
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Using the map provided, locate three continental plates and three oceanic plates. Match
the correct label with the correct plate.
1. Pacific Plate
2. North American Plate
3. Nazca Plate
4. Philippine Plate
5. Eurasian Plate
6. African Plate
A) Oceanic Plate
B) Continental Plate
Match the type of motion with the correct definition.
A) Detached material moves in a free-fall
B) Material moves downslope as a viscous fluid
C) Mass movements in which there is a distinct plane of weakness between the slide
material and underlying stable material
1. Fall
2. Slide
3. Flow
Which process is responsible for Earth's magnetic field? In which layer does this
process occur?
A) Radiation; upper mantle
B) Subduction; lower mantle
C) Convection; outer core
D) Crystallization; inner core
Fold-and-thrust belts are the result of ________ stress whereas fault block mountains
are the result of ________ stress.
A) compressional; tensional
B) shear; compressional
C) tensional; shear
D) shear; tensional
Which of the following regions is famous for its artesian wells?
A) Central Illinois
B) Florida
C) Western South Dakota
D) Coastal Maine
Science uses observations of phenomena in order to make interpretations. Which of the
following is an observation?
A) A fold is visible in an outcrop.
B) The fold was created by pressure.
C) Pressure was applied slowly to fold the rock.
D) Heat was applied to soften the rock.
Which of the following locations does not currently have glaciers?
A) Norway
B) Antarctica
C) Scotland
D) Alaska
Which part of a stream's sediment load moves the slowest?
A) Bed load
B) Dissolved load
C) Suspended load
Which group of silicate minerals has two planes of cleavage that are oriented at
approximately 60 and 120?
A) Pyroxenes
B) Potassium Feldspars
C) Amphiboles
D) Galena
How will the water table respond if it is a wet spring?
A) Water table will rise.
B) Water table will fall.
C) Water table will remain the same.
The magnetic north pole is currently moving (toward /away from) the geographic North
Pole, and the magnetic south pole is currently moving (toward /away from) the
geographic South Pole.
A) toward; toward
B) toward; away from
C) away from; toward
D) away from; away from
Match the index mineral with the correct metamorphic grade(s). For these purposes,
please remember that for a mineral to be part of two metamorphic grades, it should
make up at least one-third of both grades.
A) Low grade
B) Low to medium grade
C) Medium to high
D) Medium grade
E) High grade
1. Chlorite
2. Staurolite
3. Muscovite
4. Garnet
5. Sillimanite
Identify the spheres of the climate system present in this figure with the correct terms.
A) Geosphere
B) Cryosphere
C) Atmosphere
D) Biosphere
E) Hydrosphere
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. E
Which rock type, or combination of rock types, makes up the majority of Earth's
outermost solid surface?
A) Igneous rocks
B) Sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks
C) Sedimentary rocks
D) Igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks
What is the term used to describe slow, gradual displacement along a fault without the
accumulation of significant strain?
A) Megathrusting
B) Fault creep
C) Fault propagation
D) Elastic rebound
Which section (A, B, or C) indicates the zone where refracted seismic waves are
received?
A) Section A
B) Section B
C) Section C
________ is a material's resistance to flowing.
A) Viscosity
B) Volatiles
C) Composition
D) Quiescent
Study this image and think about what the climate is like in this region. Which
weathering process would you assume is responsible for material A?
A) Dissolution
B) Hydrolysis
C) Frost wedging
D) Exfoliation
The elastic rebound associated with earthquakes is an example of ________
deformation.
A) elastic
B) ductile
C) brittle
D) permanent
How would you describe the shape of the sediments in the rock in the above image?
A) Gravel-sized
B) Angular
C) Rounded
D) Well-sorted
A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is ________.
A) 2 meters per year
B) 0.1 inches per year
C) 20 feet per year
D) 2 centimeters per year
What interpretations can be made about the maturity of a volcano where most eruptions
occur from basal fissures and there are a number of parasitic cones along the volcano's
flanks?
A) It is a mature volcano.
B) It is in the early stages of growth.
The measurement of ocean depth and the topography of the ocean floor are known as
________.
A) geophysics
B) seismic tomography
C) topographic surveying
D) bathymetry
Why might West Virginia have the landslide risk that it does?
A) Appalachian Mountains
B) Agricultural activities
C) Volcanic eruptions
D) Permafrost
In what spaces or voids does most groundwater reside?
A) Caves
B) Pore spaces
C) Fractures
D) Pore space and fractures
What is the average thickness of the oceanic crust?
A) 0 km
B) 3 km
C) 7 km
D) 20 km
Which two gases make up the majority of the atmosphere?
A) Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
B) Neon and Methane
C) Hydrogen and Helium
D) Nitrogen and Oxygen
Which of the following is a negative gravity anomaly on this map?
A) Location A
B) Location B
C) Location C
D) Location D
Which two minerals define a felsic composition?
A) Pyroxene and amphibole
B) Muscovite and biotite micas
C) Quartz and potassium feldspar
D) Plagioclase feldspar and biotite mica
Which of the following choices represents a rate of seafloor spreading commonly
associated with a ridge such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?
A) 1-5 mm/yr
B) 1-5 cm/yr
C) 1-5 m/yr
D) 1-5 km/yr
Which of the following is not a method of caldera formation?
A) Collapse of magma chamber after large volumes of material are erupted
B) Collapse of a composite cone summit following an explosive eruption
C) Collapse of the flank of a cinder cone volcano after an effusive lava flow
D) Collapse of summit of a shield volcano after draining of magma chamber
Compare and contrast terrestrial and Jovian planets.
Using the samples in this image, indicate the number of cleavage directions this crystal
displays. (Please note that cleavage surfaces do not equate to cleavage directions.)
What is the importance of cyanobacteria for our atmosphere? What did they produce
and how? What happened to the first materials they produced?
What is the importance of monitoring volcanic activity? Why should we pay attention
to what volcanoes are doing?
During the Wisconsin Episode Glaciation, a glacial forebulge formed just off the coast
of British Columbia in the vicinity of Queen Charlotte Island. What is a glacial
forebulge and how did this one form?
Why are block lavas, such as an andesite lava, likely to create short, prominent flows
rather than long, fluid flows?
The Zone of Fracture in a glacier is found in the uppermost 50 m of glacial ice. Explain
why ice fractures above this depth, but not below.
Although the Valley and Ridge province of the Appalachians is characterized by
intensely folded rock, it is not the structures themselves that are resulting in the ridges
and valleys. What rocks make up the Valley and Ridge province, which ones make each
landform (ridges or valleys), and why?
Mauna Loa, a shield volcano in Hawaii, is approximately 10 km in height. Olympus
Mons is a shield volcano on Mars that is approximately 27 km in height. Compare the
formation of both of these volcanoes. How is it that Olympus Mons could grow so
much taller than Mauna Loa?
You are studying an outcrop where the base layer is limestone and the layer directly on
top of that is sandstone. Near the base of the sandstone are small, weathered pieces of
limestone entirely contained within the sandstone. Explain how these pieces of
limestone came to be contained within the sandstone.
What are the four factors that influence rock strength? Describe how they will affect the
rock when it is under stress.
Why doesn't the moon have an atmosphere?

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