Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition


August 23, 2017
A geyser is a type of artesian well.
Ice cores taken from glaciers show higher concentrations of 18O in the ice deposited
during colder climates.
Changes that occur in one part of the climate system are isolated and will have no part
on the remainder of the system.
Numerical dating is putting events in order from first to last.
Water expands when it freezes.
The water table undulates with the ground surface. It is low where the ground surface is
high and high where the ground surface is low.
The inner core is shrinking.
Seismic tomography requires only the data from one earthquake in order to "see" all
parts of the Earth's interior.
Shearing produced fault zones in the deep crust and folding in the upper crust.
Concordant plutons cut across existing structures while discordant plutons are parallel
to existing features.
Meteorite bombardment of the rocky planets occurred after their formation as
Groundwater migrates from areas of low pressure to areas of high pressure.
Planetary geology focuses only on those planets with a rocky surface such as Venus and
Outwash sediments are stratified by wind deposition.
Flying reptiles are a form of dinosaur.
Hadean is an informal term used by many geologists to refer to the earliest interval of
Earth's history.
A passive continental margin is located hundreds of miles away from the nearest
tectonic boundary.
Subduction zones will only develop between a continental plate and an oceanic plate.
Fault-block mountains form only along divergent plate boundaries.
Approximately 75 percent of the planet's landmasses are covered by sedimentary and
sedimentary rocks.
Before a hypothesis can become an accepted part of scientific knowledge, it must pass
objective testing and analysis.
Because massive submarine structures such as seamounts and ridges exert stronger than
average gravitational attraction, they produce depressed areas on the ocean's surface.
Low, old, rounded terrain is actively undergoing mass wasting.
Mass wasting is possible only with the aid of a transportation agent such as water, wind,
or ice.
P waves cannot penetrate the outer core because it is liquid.
Groundwater is important as an erosional agent.
Some strike-slip faults are big enough to accommodate movement between two tectonic
When precipitation occurs over a forest, only 25% of the water will make it through the
canopy to the forest floor, where other factors may affect how much will infiltrate.
Crystallization of molten rock can produce metamorphic rocks.
There are no sediments on the deep seafloor.
Most sills are intrusive igneous structures that display a fine-grained texture.
Most caverns are created at or near the water table.
A soil's parent material can consist of weathered mineral matter.
Which process has been largely responsible for increasing the amount of CO2 in the last
200 years?
A) Increasing cattle ranching worldwide
B) Disintegration of petroleum-based plastics
C) Use of industrial fertilizers
D) Burning of fossil fuels
________ refers to the change in the angle Earth's axis makes with the plane of our
planet's orbit.
A) Subduction
B) Eccentricity
C) Obliquity
D) Precession
What is the definition of subduction erosion?
A) Sediments from the ocean floor are scraped off a subducting tectonic plate and
adhere to the overriding plate.
B) Diverging tectonic plates will cause rocks to slide downward along normal faults.
C) Glaciers extending off the continent will scour deep grooves in continental shelves.
D) Sediment and rock are scraped off the bottom of an overriding plate and transported
into the mantle by a descending plate.
Olivine can be converted to spinel through ________.
A) directed pressure
B) heat
C) hydrothermal fluids
D) confining pressure
Which factor exerts the greatest control over the velocity of debris flows and the
distance they will travel?
A) Debris content
B) Water content
C) Slope angle
D) Vegetation
What magma forms from the partial melting of mantle material?
A) Ultramafic magma
B) Magmatic differentiation
C) Silicic magma
D) Secondary magma
Match the relative dating principles with the correct definition.
A) Missing time.
B) Faults, fractures are younger than the rocks they cut through.
C) Sedimentary layers/lava
D) The oldest is on the bottom, the youngest on top.
E) Rocks extend in all directions until they reach the edge of a basin or pinch out.
F) Chunks of weathered rock are older than the rock they are contained in.
1. Superposition
2. Original horizontality
3. Lateral Continuity
4. Cross-Cutting Relationships
5. Unconformities
6. Inclusions
________ is unsorted, unstratified, bimodal sediment directly deposited by the glacial
A) Loess
B) Outwash
C) Till
D) Diamicton
Match the heat transfer mechanisms to the correct description of how heat is transported
in or from the Earth.
A) Heat is transported away from Earth and into outer space.
B) Heat flows between two materials in contact with each other.
C) Warm, low-density materials rise and cool, high-density materials sink.
1. Convection
2. Conduction
3. Radiation
________ is a technique to view three-dimensional changes in composition and density
by using seismology.
A) Magnetometry
B) Paleomagnetism
C) Chemical convection
D) Seismic tomography
________ is a felsic igneous rock with a meringuelike vesicular texture, consisting of
very small holes, created by small shards of volcanic glass.
A) Scoria
B) Obsidian
C) Granite
D) Pumice
A ________ is a geographic low, which marks the location where oceanic lithosphere
descends into the mantle.
A) fold and thrust mountain
B) deep-ocean trench
C) seismic zone
D) mid-ocean rift
Match the various grades of coal in order from lowest grade to highest grade. (Note:
First refers to lowest grade and Fourth refers to highest grade.)
A) Lignite
B) Anthracite coal
C) Peat
D) Bituminous coal
1. First (lowest grade)
2. Second
3. Third
4. Fourth (highest grade)
What substance makes up the core of large Jovian planets like Saturn?
A) Mercury
B) Hydrogen
C) Iron
D) Ice
Why is the use of proxy data necessary when studying past climate change?
A) Modern recording instruments are skewed by pollutants in the atmosphere
B) Modern data has been biased by religious influence or political ideologies
C) Instrumental records only go back a couple of centuries and are more incomplete the
older they are
D) Geological and atmospheric changes occurring at the time work differently than
What was the name of the manned space missions that have successfully landed on the
surface of the moon?
A) Apollo
B) Gemini
C) Mercury
D) Sputnik
When continental drift was first proposed in 1912, geologists from one specific
continent strongly opposed the idea. Which continent's geologists were against the idea,
and why did they have difficulty accepting it? (Think about where the evidence for
continental drift is very clear.)
The higher temperatures during the Cretaceous Period were the result of ________.
A) the Milankovich Cycle
B) additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
C) increased sunspot activity
D) changing locations of continents
What landform is present in this image?
A) Drumlin
B) Esker
C) Kettle
D) Horn
Which ferromagnesian mineral is believed to constitute up to 50 percent of the mantle?
A) Biotite
B) Amphibole
C) Olivine
D) Garnet
If an igneous rock is heated, which mineral melts first according to Bowen's reaction
A) Quartz
B) Pyroxene
C) Potassium feldspar
D) Olivine
What generates tides on the earth?
A) Gravitational repulsion of the sun
B) Melting of ice sheets
C) Gravitational attraction of the moon
D) Upwelling of methane gas
What is the term for stored-up energy released by earthquakes?
A) Tectonic
B) Seismic
C) Geophysical
D) Structural
Which of the following is a modern descendant of the gymnosperm plants of the
A) Orchids
B) Junipers
C) Lichen
D) Oaks
In July 1863, Union and Confederate forces fought in a three-day battle at Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania. The Confederate position was on Seminary Ridge, an igneous dike. The
Union position was on Cemetery Ridge, an igneous sill. Using what you know about
the history of the battle, interpret how the geology of the battlefield aided the Union
What will happen to the water level in the stream if the water table is below the level of
the stream channel?
A) The stream will lose water to the groundwater system.
B) The stream will gain water from the groundwater system.
C) The level of water in the stream will remain constant.
To be a gaining stream, the elevation of the water table must be ________ than that of
the surface of the stream.
A) lower
B) higher
C) heavier
D) lighter
Which of the following rocks is composed of only a single mineral?
A) Limestone
B) Granite
C) Conglomerate
D) Gabbro
The oceanic crust is composed almost entirely of ________ rocks that are underlain by
________ rocks, which makes up the lithospheric mantle.
A) felsic; sediments
B) intermediate; felsic
C) sedimentary; mafic
D) mafic; ultramafic
Assume that Layer C is a lava flow that has been radiometrically dated to 97 million
years ago. What is the age of Layer Z?
A) Younger than 97 million years old
B) Older than 97 million years old
C) Younger than 45 million years old
D) Exactly 97 million years old
A Devonian-aged limestone contains fossils of brachiopods and bryozoans. What do
these fossils indicate about the environment during the Devonian period?
A) Arid desert
B) Coastal swamp
C) Delta
D) Shallow marine
Match the state of the glacier to the correct glacial budget.
A) Incoming ice is equal to ablation.
B) Incoming ice is less than ablation.
C) Incoming ice is greater than ablation.
1. Glacial stagnation
2. Glacial advance
3. Glacial retreat
How does a volcanic neck form? What happens to the rest of the volcano that originally
surrounded it?
How do humans contribute to climate change today?
What factors determine whether precipitation will become running water or infiltrate?
Compare and contrast sediment transportation by wind and by water.
You have been asked to review a manuscript that has been submitted for publication in
a professional journal. The area of interest in this article is an amphibolite exposed
along the Chippewa River at Jim Falls, Wisconsin. The researchers state that the
amphibolite is believed to have been altered 2.6 billion years ago by tectonic pressures
of 14 kilobars and temperatures of 190C. Should you approve this manuscript for
publication? Why or why not?
What are the four agents of metamorphism?
How does the presence of silica affect the temperature and viscosity of magma?
Slow cooling produces ________ crystals, whereas fast cooling produces ________
What physical features are evidence of a karst landscape?
What geologic factors contributed to the severity of the Gros Ventre Landslide of 1925?
Is the greenhouse effect a completely bad thing for the planet? Why or why not?
Explain how artesian wells are created. Your explanation should include a discussion of
how they get recharged.
What is the difference between a graben and a half-graben?
The early Earth separated into different layers as a result of differentiation. What were
the three basic layers of the interior of the early Earth?
The science of geology borrows principles and techniques from other sciences in order
to determine what happened in the past. Which three sciences contribute knowledge and
principles that geologists use to understand the natural world?