PHYSICS 37139

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Authors
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
What materials are best dated with carbon-14?
A) Igneous rocks
B) Volcanic rocks
C) Organic materials
D) Sandstones
When was the Last Glacial Maximum?
A) 18,000 years ago
B) 10,000 years ago
C) 100,000 years ago
D) 32,000 years ago
Which countries/regions outside the United States are famous for their geothermal
activity?
A) Brazil, South Africa, and Ukraine
B) Cuba, Italy, and the Philippines
C) Japan, China, and North Korea
D) Iceland, New Zealand, Japan, and Siberia
Match the intrusive igneous rock with its extrusive equivalent.
1. Granite
2. Diorite
3. Gabbro
A) Basalt
B) Andesite
C) Rhyolite
How was the Salt Pan at Death Valley created? What is the name of such a desert
feature?
A) Stream erosion; wadi
B) Precipitation; nullah
C) Evaporation; playa
D) Chemical reactions; ephemeral
What is the crescent-shaped mark found at the top of a slump block?
A) Scarp
B) Ditch
C) Overburden
D) Earthflow
Which type of volcanic material will dominate the eruptions along a continental
volcanic arc?
A) Mafic lavas
B) Lavas of intermediate or felsic composition
C) A mix of felsic and ultramafic lavas
D) Felsic lavas
Which 19th-century scientist developed the following equation that determines the
discharge of an aquifer?
A) Charles Lyell
B) Alfred Wegener
C) Louis Agassiz
D) Henri Darcy
Which slope composition is the most stable?
A) Unconsolidated sediments
B) Rock layers inclined parallel to the slope
C) Solid bedrock
D) Carbonate rock affected by dissolution
What kind of fold is visible in this figure?
A) Anticline
B) Syncline
C) Monocline
D) Overturned fold
Using the blanks provided, match the correct labels to the parts of the interior of the
Earth.
A) Mantle
B) Inner Core
C) Crust
D) Outer Core
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
________ accounts for greater ocean depths moving away from the oceanic ridge
toward the deep ocean basin.
A) Mantle plume
B) Convection
C) Thermal contraction
D) Gravity
In what geologic time period would the mammoth in this image have existed?
A) Neogene to Quaternary Periods
B) Cambrian Period
C) Jurassic to Cretaceous Periods
D) Permian Period
If the distance from one wave crest to the next is 10 ft., what will the depth to the wave
base be?
A) 2 ft.
B) 5 ft.
C) 11 ft.
D) 20 ft.
The presence of a breakwater can promote several actions along a shoreline. However,
which one of the following would not result because of the presence of a breakwater?
A) Storm waves breaking on the seaward side of the structure.
B) Increased beach erosion on either side of the breakwater.
C) Quiet water on the landward side of the breakwater, resulting in deposition.
D) Increase of rip currents and longshore currents because of interference from the
structure.
Which of the following is associated with a passive continental margin?
A) Divergent boundaries
B) Convergent boundaries
C) Transform boundaries
D) No tectonic boundaries nearby
Which of the following are examples of fault-block mountains?
A) Himalayas
B) Rocky Mountains
C) Basin and Range
D) Alps
________ is the turbulent water created by breaking waves.
A) A swell
B) A refracted wave
C) A tombolo
D) Surf
What nongeologic term is commonly used to describe a sudden event in which large
volumes of material move down steep slopes?
A) Mass Wasting
B) Carbonization
C) Landslide
D) Lahar
Which of the following is not one of the major tectonic plates on the Earth's surface?
A) Juan de Fuca Plate
B) North American Plate
C) African Plate
D) Pacific Plate
What materials are sampled to study 16O:18O ratios during past climates?
A) Sea sediments
B) Tree rings
C) Marine microorganisms
D) Atmosphere
Some of the largest crude oil reserves in the world, collected in an anticline trap, are
found ________.
A) on land in Texas
B) in the deeper waters of the Gulf of Mexico
C) in Saudi Arabia
D) on the continental slope in the North Sea
________ metamorphism will occur when high-speed projectiles strike the Earth's
surface.
A) Fault zone
B) Shock
C) Subduction zone
D) Contact
Which of the following is an example of brittle deformation?
A) Squeezing a rubber ball and seeing it bounce back
B) Denting the fender of a car
C) Throwing a hammer through a glass windowpane
D) Pressing on a spring and seeing it rebound
Which of the following locations is an example of forced subduction?
A) Mariana Trench
B) Peru-Chile Trench
C) East African Rift
D) Mid-Atlantic Rift
What is the name of the metamorphic rock in the image above?
A) Slate
B) Shale
C) Gneiss
D) Schist
Submarine canyons found cutting into the continental shelf and slope are believed to
have been created ________.
A) by subduction
B) by icebergs
C) by rivers during the ice age
D) by tectonic rifting
How do joints form in tectonic environments?
A) Rocks near the surface are stretched and pulled apart.
B) Hot rocks cool and contract.
C) Water dissolves rock along fractures.
D) Rock fractures through heating.
What sedimentary structure is visible in this image?
A) Cross-bedding
B) Bedding
C) Deflation
D) Bajada
This image is a diagram of the layers of the atmosphere. The breaks between the layers
have been blocked out. Match the names of the breaks with the following terms.
A) Tropopause
B) Stratopause
C) Mesopause
1. A
2. B
3. C
Deposits of silt carried by blowing winds are referred to as ________.
A) deflation deposits
B) loess
C) eolian sands
D) alluvium
What is the term used to describe the hypothetical line the water in a confined aquifer
would rise to if it weren't trapped?
A) Potentiometric surface
B) Hydraulic gradient
C) Darcy's law
D) Discharge
Which of the following plate boundaries is not usually associated with volcanism?
A) Convergent
B) Divergent
C) Transform
What information is needed to determine the distance from the focus of an earthquake
to the seismic receiving station?
A) The velocity of the P and S waves
B) The amplitude of the seismic waves on a seismogram
C) The magnitude of the earthquake
D) The time interval between the P and S waves

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