Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Tsunamis travel as a single wave across the ocean.
Weathering is the transportation or removal of broken-down materials.
Fast mass-wasting processes are more widespread than slow mass-wasting processes.
Carbon-14 dating is useful for paleontologists researching dinosaurs.
The more the silica in magma, the lower the viscosity.
A mineral deposit may lose its profitability due to economic changes such as rising
production costs and stock market volatility.
The North American continent was covered by more ice than the South American
continent at the height of the Ice Age.
Most Precambrian rocks lack fossils, which makes correlating rock units over large
distances difficult.
Particle shape is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital
sedimentary rocks.
Wells are drilled into the subsurface to remove water from the unsaturated zone.
The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has been shown to be increasing for
the last 1,000 years, indicating that humans are not responsible for its generation.
Computer models are not infallible at predicting climate change because they use
simplified versions of the Earth to create the model.
Monitoring foreshocks has become a reliable indicator for predicting earthquakes.
Saltating sand grains in a desert are carried by the wind and rarely more than 1 meter
above the surface in normal circumstances.
Color is a reliable identification technique for minerals.
Water vapor is a greenhouse gas.
Quartz has only one color.
Joints are fractures in a rock created by tension and will demonstrate significant
Mineral crystals that form early in the crystallization process will have better-developed
crystal faces than later crystals.
The Geologic Time Scale records the history of Earth all the way back to the formation
of the universe.
As mountains continue to rise in elevation, the processes of erosion and mass wasting
are accelerated.
Increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere results in increased global temperatures.
There can be no variation of mineral composition in order for the substance to remain
the same mineral.
Because of Pluto's inclined orbital plane, it appears to cross paths with Neptune and will
occasionally be closer to the sun than Neptune.
The smallest of the planets in our solar system is Pluto.
Levees are artificial, not natural formations.
Passive continental margins will have a well-developed forearc and back-arc basin
The Earth is still in an Ice Age today because there are still glaciers on the planet.
Coal is still an important fuel in the United States, mainly used for producing electricity
Saturn is the only planet in the solar system with rings composed of particles of water
ice and rocky debris.
The gold deposits discovered at Sutters Creek that instigated the California Gold Rush
of 1848 were in the form of placer deposits.
Nearly all the energy that drives the Earth's climate comes from the Sun.
The water table is the uppermost 3 feet of the zone of saturation.
S waves will not travel through liquids.
Cap rocks over reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas are nonporous and impermeable.
Trapped air in glaciers record atmospheric composition through time.
Because the Indian subcontinent is still colliding with the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayas
are still actively forming.
Foliated textures are primarily the result of heat. Nonfoliated textures are primarily the
result of directed pressure.
Maximum velocity occurs when the stream is at the bankful stage.
What era, period, and epoch do we currently exist in?
A) Precambrian, Jurassic, Eocene
B) Mesozoic, Permian, Pleistocene
C) Paleozoic, Paleogene, Paleocene
D) Cenozoic, Quaternary, Holocene
A ________ is a solid, naturally occurring, cohesive substance composed of minerals or
mineral-like materials.
A) tetrahedron
B) mineral
C) rock
D) mixture
What is the driving force behind pyroclastic flows?
A) Directed explosion
B) Gravity
C) Water
D) Earthquakes
Plutonic bodies that have a surface exposure less than 100 km2are
called ________.
A) dikes
B) stocks
C) swarms
D) batholiths
Which of the following processes will release CO2 into the atmosphere?
A) Burning fossil fuels and photosynthesis of vegetation
B) Weathering of granite
C) Weathering of carbonates
D) Photosynthesis of vegetation
E) Burning of fossil fuels and weathering of carbonate
When Eyjafjallajkull erupted in March 2010, ash plumes drifted southeast over Europe
and, as a result, the controlled airspaces over many European countries were closed to
air traffic, stranding thousands of people worldwide. Why would flying a commercial
jet through a cloud of volcanic ash be dangerous?
A) Ash can impede visibility if thick enough.
B) Hot ash will cause the plane to catch fire.
C) Abrasion of windows and engine parts from ash.
D) Engines can be clogged by ash.
E) Ash impairs visibility, clogs engines, and abrades engine parts.
What percentage of the Earth is covered by oceans?
A) 50%
B) 17%
C) 80%
D) 71%
Only eight elements make up the vast majority of rock-forming minerals. Which of the
following elements is not one of the eight?
A) Oxygen
B) Hydrogen
C) Iron
D) Potassium
Crystallization of molten rock will produce ________ rocks.
A) metamorphic
B) igneous
C) sedimentary
Which of the following areas consists of narrow beaches backed by steep cliffs and
mountain ranges?
A) Pacific Coast
B) Atlantic Coast
C) Gulf Coast
D) Florida shoreline
The ________ refers to water in solid form, such as ice and snow that exists on the
Earth's surface.
A) Cryosphere
B) Atmosphere
C) Geosphere
D) Biosphere
In an aqueous solution that has not reached the saturation point, why won't the ions
bond to create mineral crystals?
A) The opposite charges of the ions repel each other.
B) The ions are too close together to form a regular internal crystalline structure.
C) The motion of the dissolved ions keeps them from joining.
D) There are too few ions to make any minerals.
The ________ are the mineral class that accounts for more than 90 percent of the
Earth's crust.
A) silicates
B) sulfates
C) carbonates
D) sulfides
Which of the following environments would most likely produce metamorphism in
fault zones?
A) Great depth and low temperatures
B) Shallow depth and low temperatures
C) Great depth and high temperatures
D) Shallow depth and high temperatures
Which is least dense?
A) Oceanic lithosphere
B) Mantle
C) Continental lithosphere
D) Asthenosphere
If the outer core is cooler than the inner core, why is it in a liquid state?
A) It has more radioactivity than in the inner core.
B) It is under less pressure than the inner core.
C) It has greater water content than the inner core.
D) It has higher density materials than the inner core.
What affect would the formation of a supercontinent have on the climate of this
A) The climate would have become colder.
B) The climate would have become more humid.
C) The climate would have remained the same.
D) The climate would have become drier.
Which type of magma(s) will produce scoria?
A) Basaltic
B) Andesitic
C) Rhyolitic
D) Basaltic and andesitic
E) Andesitic and rhyolitic
What are the two categories of seismic waves?
A) Primary wave and secondary waves
B) Body waves and surface waves
C) Air waves and ground waves
D) Compression waves and tension waves
A ________ is an example of a translational slide.
A) rockslide
B) creep
C) mudflow
D) slump
A piece of gravel is resting on a slope. Which of the following best describes how the
gravitational force pulling the gravel downward will vary with the inclination of the
A) Gravitational force is not affected by the slope angle.
B) Gravitational force will increase as the slope angle decreases.
C) Gravitational force will only change with the addition of water.
D) Gravitational force will decrease as the slope angle decreases.
What geologic era are we in today?
A) Cenozoic
B) Mesozoic
C) Paleozoic
D) Precambrian
The Hawaiian mantle plume has left a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts
stretching back for ~70 million years. Although the mantle plume has remained
relatively stationary, the Pacific Plate above it has moved. Use the figure below to
answer the following question.
What direction has the Pacific plate been moving for the last 40 million years?
A) Southeast
B) North
C) Northwest
D) Northeast
E) West
Which U.S. state was the nation's leader in coal production as of 2014?
A) Pennsylvania
B) Wyoming
C) Texas
D) West Virginia
What is the ultimate source for naturally occurring carbon-14?
A) Cosmic ray collisions and neutron capture involving nitrogen
B) Dissolution of carbonate rocks
C) Decay of unstable parent isotopes to create a stable carbon-14
D) Volcanic eruption and emission of greenhouse gases
Which layer of Earth makes up more than 82 percent of the volume of the planet?
A) Outer core
B) Crust
C) Mantle
D) Inner core
What is the definition of cryovolcanism?
A) Pyroclastic volcanism that ignites methane-rich atmospheres
B) Cessation of volcanism because of increasing atmospheric pressures
C) Increase in rate of tectonic motion due to lubrication of ice
D) Eruption of magmas derived from partial melting of ice
List three economic materials that can be profitably extracted from placer deposits.
A) Gold, platinum, and tin
B) Diamonds, iron, and quartz
C) Sand, gravel, and silt
D) Granite, basalt, and gabbro
A stream is transporting Particle A. The velocity of stream is decreasing, but for the
moment, Particle A is still moving. However, when the water drops below 50 cm/sec,
Particle A falls below its fall velocity and is deposited. Based on this information, what
is the likely particle size for this object?
A) 0.01 mm
B) 0.1 mm
C) 5 mm
D) 10 mm
Artes, horns, and hanging valleys are evidence of ________ glaciation.
A) alpine
B) ice shelf
C) continental
D) ice cap
Which of the following is the parent rock of quartzite?
A) Limestone
B) Conglomerate
C) Granite
D) Sandstone
Which of the following choices best explains the difference between a crater and a
A) A crater is a very large circular depression over 1 km across; a caldera is a small
funnel-shaped depression.
B) A crater is a small, funnel-shaped depression; a caldera is a large depression that has
a diameter of over 1 km.
C) A crater is a fissure in the crust; a caldera is a collapsed summit.
D) A crater is a large circular depression over 1 km across; a caldera is a small, parasitic
cone growing on the flank of the volcano.
A ________ is an example of a rotational slide.
A) rockslide
B) fall
C) mudflow
D) slump
What is the definition of a dipolar field?
How can the ratios of oxygen isotopes be used to indicate past climate change? What
marine substance can be tested for its oxygen ratios?
A stonemason has shaped a block of marble into a perfect cube with dimensions of 2
feet by 2 feet by 2 feet.
What is the surface area of the cube? (Hint: What is the formula for the area of a
square? How many sides does a cube have?)
Explain how the size, shape, and sorting of sediments can provide information about the
distance the sediment has traveled from its source.
Explain the difference between "terrain" and "terrane."
Over oceans, rates of evaporation exceed those of precipitation. In spite of this, sea
level does not drop. Explain why this is the case.
In the process of hydration, the entire water molecule is added to the mineral structure,
stretching the crystal lattice. Which type of weathering would this process describe:
physical or chemical? Why?
Mount Rushmore National Memorial was created at the height of the Great Depression
in the 1930s by the use of explosives and jackhammers to sculpt granitic igneous rock.
Which category of weathering (mechanical or chemical) best describes how the rock
was broken down? Explain why you believe this is so.
Explain the difference between a scientific hypothesis and a scientific theory.
Compare and contrast a geyser and a hot spring.
Some bottled water companies advertise that their product is clean and pure because it
comes from an artesian well. Discuss the validity of this statement.
Explain why S waves are unable to pass through the outer core.
In the process of a magma cooling and crystallizing, if the original melt contained large
amounts of iron, why isn't quartz a ferromagnesian mineral?
You are driving along a mountain highway built into the side of the mountain. The rock
layers making up the slope are oriented parallel to the slope. What are three ways that
the slope could be stabilized to reduce the likelihood of landslides?
Explain how the presence of glaciers on the planet affects the albedo of the land
surface. How will the albedo change as glaciers melt? What will this mean for the

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