Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Match the igneous composition to its silica content.
1. Mac
2. Felsic
3. Intermediate
A) ~60%
B) ~50%
C) ~70%
Generally speaking, how does the chemical composition of most metamorphic rocks
compare to that of the parent rock?
A) Their chemical composition will be nearly the same.
B) In order to be a metamorphic rock, the chemical composition must change by 50
C) There will be a complete compositional change.
D) Knowing the chemical composition is not necessary to understand metamorphic
Sea level rise is a combination of ________ and ________ as the climate becomes
A) freezing ice; increasing salinity
B) evaporation; sublimation
C) melting ice; thermal expansion
D) plate tectonics; mountain uplift
What is the ultimate base level?
A) Continental Divide
B) A basalt flow beneath softer sedimentary rocks
C) Sea level
D) The bottom of a waterfall
A research team is studying the velocity of seismic waves in various types of rock.
Using explosives, they create small explosions to study how fast the energy waves will
travel. Using the velocity data below, infer which rocks are higher in density and which
are lower in density. Which rock or rocks have the highest density?
Rock A: 7 km/s
Rock B: 5.9 km/s
Rock C: 7.2 km/s
Rock D: 6.1 km/s
Rock E: 6.25 km/s
A) Rock C
B) Rocks B & D
C) Rocks B, D, & E
D) Rocks A & C
Using the image above, label the following.
A) Capillary Fringe
B) Zone of Saturation
C) Water Table
D) Unsaturated Zone
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
What is the temperature range over which hydrothermal metamorphism will occur?
A) 0-400C
B) 400-1000C
C) 200-600C
D) 600-750C
A worm burrow is an example of which type of fossilization?
A) Mummification
B) Cast and mold
C) Carbonization
D) Trace fossil
Which culture recorded the earliest writings about topics such as fossils, earthquakes,
and gemstones?
A) Roman Empire
B) Renaissance Europe
C) Ancient China
D) Ancient Greece
________ is decayed remains of plant and animal life.
A) Regolith
B) Gravel
C) Amino Acids
D) Humus
What is the definition of planetarydifferentiation?
A) Separation of materials based on density
B) Categorization based on chemical formulas
C) Mixing of materials to produce a new compound
D) Divisions of planets based on constituent materials
What is the most common sedimentary rock?
A) Sandstone
B) Graywacke
C) Shale
D) Limestone
Although rare in Earth's crust, some of the most important deposits of uranium are
associated with ________.
A) lake sediments
B) placer deposits
C) ancient sand dunes
D) geysers
Which of the following will not occur as the result of longshore currents?
A) Zigzag pattern of water movement
B) Transportation of sand
C) Refraction of waves
D) Periodic changes in the overall direction of flow parallel to the shore
Using the choices below, select the statement that best explains how dissolved gases
drive volcanic eruptions.
A) As the magma rises, gas bubbles contract, fragmenting the material and expelling it
from the vent.
B) As the magma rises, gases reduce silicate mineral chains by breaking silicon-oxygen
bonds; the result is an explosion.
C) Confining pressure decreases on a rising magma, allowing gas bubbles to expand
and fracture the magma. This process further decreases pressure on the magma and will
result in an explosive event.
D) Decreases in confining pressure result in decreasing viscosity of the magma,
allowing the magma to ooze from the volcano.
Where is the oldest known rock on Earth located?
A) Ural Mountains, Russia
B) Slave Craton, Alberta, Canada
C) Gobi Desert, Mongolia
D) Dharwar Craton, India
Flying by Pluto in July 2015, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft transmitted images of a
complex landscape called Sputnik Planum. Which of the following best describes
Sputnik Planum?
A) A large ice field with tongues of flowing ice
B) A large volcanic field with lava flows composed of frozen methane
C) A field of overlapping impact craters
D) A landscape shaped by flowing water
Which of the following uses the largest percentage of the Earth's groundwater?
A) Mining
B) Hydroelectric power
C) Irrigation
D) Public consumption
How do deep-ocean trenches form?
A) Magma from a partially melting tectonic plate makes its way through the crust.
B) Subducting lithosphere descends into the mantle.
C) Two tectonic plates diverge and create a rift valley.
D) Sediments from a turbidity current settle out in a deep ocean basin.
How did the debris from the Gros Ventre Landslide of 1925 lead to another disaster in
the same region in 1927?
A) Loose debris resulted in a mudflow.
B) The mass movement of sediment contaminated drinking water.
C) The debris blocked the river, creating a lake that later burst.
D) The debris mixed with river water to create a lahar.
Determine whether the following materials are renewable or nonrenewable resources.
(Note: Your choices will be used more than once.)
A) Renewable
B) Nonrenewable
1. Gold
2. Petroleum
3. Wood
4. Iron ore
5. Cattle
________ occurs when magnetic minerals in lavas align their magnetic fields with
magnetic north, preserving a record of that pole's location at that moment in time.
A) A mantle plume
B) Paleomagnetism
C) Magnetic reversal
D) Seafloor spreading
________ is a term used to define 88% of Earth's history prior to the start of the
Paleozoic era.
A) Quaternary
B) Precambrian
C) Paleogene
D) Jurassic
Which of the following best describes the formation of the Ural Mountains of Russia?
A) Marine sediments that had collected in a basin were compressed and uplifted as the
former Asian and European plates merged
B) Marine sediments were sheared along a transform boundary between the Eurasian
and African plates
C) A continental volcanic arc formed as two microcontinents collided and subducted
D) The landscape was pulled apart by rifting and flood basalts piled up on the landscape
Where was the first large-scale commercial geothermal electrical facility in the United
States, built in 1960?
A) The Geysers, California
B) Oak Ridge, Tennessee
C) Hot Springs, Arkansas
D) Mammoth Lake, California
What percentage of the Earth's land surface is currently covered by glacial ice?
A) 2%
B) 10%
C) 15%
D) 33%
In which direction is mass wasting occurring in this image? (Note: The perspective is
from the side.)
A) From top to bottom
B) From left to right
C) From bottom to top
D) From right to left
In what kind of environment did the organism in this image live?
A) Desert
B) Rainforest
C) Marine
D) Swamp
Based on the volcanic type and construction of the flanks, what assumptions can you
make about the viscosity of the lava?
A) The lava is high viscosity.
B) The lava is low viscosity.
How many subdeltas have been formed by the Mississippi River in the last 6,000 years?
A) 6
B) 2
C) 5
D) 7

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