PHYS 86868

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
________ is when groundwater is being replenished. ________ is when groundwater is
flowing back toward the surface.
A) Recharge; Discharge
B) Drainage; Discharge
C) Dissolution; Recharge
D) Retention; Capacity
Using the figure above, fill in the missing substances from Bowen's reaction series.
A) Olivine
B) Biotite mica
C) Quartz
D) Calcium-rich plagioclase
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
Which of the following methods of transportation will result in the least sorted deposit?
A) Waves on a beach
B) Streams
C) Rock fall
D) Wind
What is the texture of a rock?
A) How the rock feels to the touch
B) The composition of minerals that make up the rock
C) The shape of the rock
D) The size, shape, and/or arrangement of minerals in a rock
Which of the following trace gases is not natural to the atmosphere and is purely the
result of human activities?
A) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
B) Nitrous oxide
C) Krypton
D) Methane
What kind of volcanic chain is present in this image?
A) Hot spot volcanoes
B) Volcanic island arc
C) Continental volcanic arc
D) Rift volcanoes
When considering hydrothermal deposits, vein- or fissure-filling deposits of metallic
ores such as gold or silver are common in ________.
A) rocks of a contact-metamorphic zone that formed around a shallow granite pluton
B) pyroclastic materials erupted from a stratovolcano
C) impact structures from meteorites
D) rocks that form in high-pressure subduction zones
What does "-zoic" in the eras of the geologic time scale refer to?
A) Life
B) Water
C) Rock
D) Fossilization
Match the desert landform with the correct definition.
A) Apron of sediment along the mountain front
B) Bedrock knob sticking up through sediment-filled basin
C) Cone of debris at the mouth of a canyon leaving the mountains
D) Dry, flat lake bed created by evaporation
1. Inselberg
2. Bajada
3. Playa
4. Alluvial fan
Match the organism to the era it flourished in. (Note: Answers may be used more than
A) Paleozoic
B) Cenozoic
C) Mesozoic
1. Trilobite
2. Mammoths
3. Ichthyosaurs
4. Archaeopteryx
5. Marsupials
What process is illustrated by the arrows in this image?
A) Longshore current
B) Rip current
C) Wave refraction
D) Beach nourishment
What was the most recent episode of glaciation in North America?
A) Nebraskan Episode
B) Kansan Episode
C) Illinois Episode Glaciation
D) Wisconsin Episode Glaciation
Which continent had the greatest area covered by glaciers at the height of the Ice Age?
A) South America
B) Asia
C) North America
D) Europe
Which of the following scenarios best describes the formation of hornfels?
A) Mudstones are metamorphosed by directed pressure.
B) Granite is melted and recrystallized.
C) Shales and mudstones are baked during contact metamorphism.
D) Phyllite is altered by contact with hydrothermal fluids.
Which of the following is associated with an active continental margin?
A) Divergent boundaries
B) Convergent boundaries
C) Transform boundaries
D) No tectonic boundaries nearby
There is no one maximum depth for desert blowouts. They vary in depth depending on
conditions present at the location. What controls the depth of all blowouts?
A) Force of the moving wind
B) Velocity of water eddy
C) Elevation of water table
D) Amount of water available for dissolution of underlying materials
What is an isotope?
A) An atom that has more or fewer neutrons than it should
B) An atom that has more or fewer electrons than it should
C) An atom that has double the protons of a stable atom
D) A nucleus of an atom that has split during the decay process
Which of the following scenarios would lead to a mass wasting event due to an
oversteepened slope?
A) Trees are planted on a slope
B) Heavy rains saturate slope materials
C) Construction of buildings on slopes
D) Baking of surface materials during a wildfire
Since humans cannot access the core, what objects do scientists use as a proxy to
determine the composition of the inner and outer core?
A) Volcanic rocks
B) Meteorites
C) Comets
D) Glaciers
Which weathering process is illustrated in this image?
A) Exfoliation
B) Root wedging
C) Hydrolysis
D) Frost wedging
Which one of the following statements about landforms is correct?
A) Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys.
B) Playas form on high cuestas in arid areas.
C) Inselbergs are composed of coarse sands and gravels.
D) Inselbergs are found in low, circular depressions.
What is the definition of a turbidity current?
A) Subsidence of the seafloor
B) Fast-moving water created by density differences
C) Submarine landslide
D) Focused jet of water blasting across the shelf from a surface stream
A(n) ________ coast will be created when sea level rises or the land subsides.
A) exposed
B) emergent
C) submergent
D) eroded
The Cascadia subduction zone off the coast of Washington and Oregon famously lacks
a well-defined deep-ocean trench. Why might this be the case?
A) Compression from the convergent boundary has squeezed any potential trench
B) There is a massive amount of sediment fill from the Columbia River basin.
C) The descending plate is warm and buoyant, so it subducts shallowly.
D) There is a shallow angle of plate subduction, as well as large quantities of sediment
In what environment will the plant and animal remains necessary to generate oil
A) Desert
B) Swamp
C) Stream
D) Ocean
Mineral species can be further subdivided into ________.
A) mineral classes
B) mineraloids
C) evaporites
D) varieties
Identify the mass-wasting event in this image.
A) Solifluction
B) Lahar
C) Mudflow
D) Slump
The Hawaiian mantle plume is a classic example of a long-lived mantle plume being
used to demonstrate how the motion of a tectonic plate has changed over time. Which
hot spot would be an even better indicator of the Pacific plate's motion over time?
A) Cape Verde mantle plume
B) Easter Island
C) Yellowstone
D) Caroline
E) Pitcairn
Which of the following locations has a coastline famous for its erosional features such
as wave-cut platforms?
A) Northern California
B) Florida
C) North Carolina
D) Louisiana
Which of the following best describes the appearance and composition of a
A) Angular fragments; well sorted
B) Rounded fragments; poorly sorted
C) Angular fragments; poorly sorted
D) Rounded fragments; well sorted
Peridotite that undergoes partial melting will create a melt enriched in ________.
A) iron, magnesium, feldspars, and silica
B) silica
C) iron and magnesium
D) feldspars and silica
Match the word with the correct definition.
A) Rock or regolith that can store and transmit water but is contained between two
impermeable layers
B) Rock or regolith that can store and transmit water and receives its recharge directly
from the atmosphere
C) Impermeable layer that prevents flow
1. Aquitard
2. Confined aquifer
3. Unconfined aquifer
Which low-grade metamorphic rock displays thin, parallel layers and contains very fine
grains of mica?
A) Schist
B) Gneiss
C) Anthracite
D) Slate

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