PHYS 36413

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Authors
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
________ was the English engineer and canal builder who observed that sedimentary
strata in widely separated areas could be identified by their distinctive fossil
assemblages.
A) Isaac Newton
B) William Smith
C) Charles Lyell
D) Charles Darwin
Why might there be density changes between different parts of the same layer of the
planet?
A) Different materials make up different regions of the same layer.
B) Some materials may compress when squeezed by overlying rock.
C) Repelling forces may cause some atoms to expand.
D) Differentiation is still separating materials into distinct interior layers.
________ and ________ are chemical weathering products created in many metal and
coal mining regions and pose serious environmental hazards.
A) Carbonic acid; slag
B) Nitric acid; coal dust
C) Hydrochloric acid; bicarbonate
D) Sulfuric acid; iron oxide
What is base level?
A) The highest elevation streams can be found.
B) The downward limit of erosion.
C) The transition from a straight channel stream to a meandering stream.
D) The gradient line along the longitudinal profile of the stream.
Today, erosion on the moon is dominated by ________, which helps to smooth the
landscape.
A) Water
B) Wind
C) Ice
D) Micrometeorites
During what periods would streams see the greatest erosion and transportation of
sediment?
A) Floods
B) Droughts
C) When frozen
D) When dammed
Using the image above, label the five soil horizons from the surface downward.
A) E Horizon
B) C Horizon
C) O Horizon
D) B Horizon
E) A Horizon
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. E
Which of the following best illustrates the connection between climate and geologic
processes?
A) Water coming off a cooling magma emplaces metallic ores
B) Hydrothermal vents near a mid-ocean rift create chimneys of mineral deposits
C) Heavy rainfalls trigger debris flows
D) Arid climates make sea level drop
A(n) ________ stream is a stream that is in equilibrium and is neither eroding or
depositing material, but simply transporting it.
A) graded stream
B) braided stream
C) alluvial stream
D) bedrock stream
How is the shape of Earth affected by its rotation?
A) Earth is perfectly round.
B) The poles are further from the center of Earth than the equator.
C) The equator is further from the center of Earth than the poles.
Match the volcanic hazard with its definition.
1. Pyroclastic flow
2. Lahar
3. Tsunami
4. Ash Falls
5. Volcanic Gases
A) Substances like CO2, SO2, Cl, and F that can result in climate change and be
hazardous to human health
B) Large volumes of ash precipitating from eruption cloud
C) Fluid mudflow of volcanic debris
D) Hot, fast-moving body of expanding gas and ash that hugs the flanks of the volcano
E) Destructive sea wave triggered by powerful explosions or landslides into large
bodies of water
Match the tectonic boundary with its direction of motion.
1. Convergent boundary
2. Divergent boundary
3. Transform boundary
A) Two plates pull apart from each other
B) Two plates slide past each other
C) Two plates move toward each other
Which of the following descriptions does not specifically apply to sediments carried
away from the glacier by meltwater streams?
A) Deposited in stratified layers
B) Composed of clay-rich materials
C) Often well sorted
D) Composed of sands and gravels
Using the images above, select the correct name for each metamorphic rock and match
it with the correct image. Then, select the correct metamorphic grade for each rock.
A) Schist, medium
B) Gneiss, high
C) Slate, low
D) Phyllite, low
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
What is the term for sediment deposited by streams?
A) Fluvium
B) Colluvium
C) Alluvium
D) Talus
A ________ is a submarine volcano.
A) seamount
B) caldera
C) scoria cone
D) dome
Which of the following minerals has good cleavage in two directions, which creates a
rectangular-shaped crystal?
A) Halite
B) Quartz
C) Plagioclase
D) Biotite
What is the slowest form of mass wasting?
A) Slump
B) Debris flow
C) Creep
D) Earthflow
What kind of fault is present in this image?
A) Normal fault
B) Reverse fault
C) Left-lateral strike-slip fault
D) Right-lateral strike-slip fault
A neutron is a combination of a(n) ________ and a(n) ________.
A) cation; isotope
B) nucleus; electron
C) electron; proton
D) ion; isotope
Approximately what percentage of the Earth's surface consists of deep-ocean basins?
A) 10%
B) 30%
C) 47%
D) 49%
Match the textural descriptions with the appropriate sedimentary composition.
A) Crystalline appearance.
B) Subangular clasts, poor sorting.
C) Black, fibrous material. Some layering.
1. Detrital
2. Organic
3. Chemical
Seiches are dangerous to begin with, but which of the following situations is
particularly dangerous during seiche formation?
A) Lake
B) Reservoir behind an earthen dam
C) Restricted bay
D) In-ground swimming pools
Match the type of atomic bond with the correct definition.
1. Ionic bond
2. Covalent bond
3. Metallic bond
4. Hybrid bond
A) Valence electrons are free to move from one atom to another so all atoms share
available valence electrons, creating an electron "sea."
B) Incomplete transfer of electrons that results in atoms partially transferring and
partially sharing electrons.
C) One atom gives up one or more valence electrons to another atom.
D) Chemical bonds created by sharing a pair of electrons between atoms.
A ________ is a tabular, concordant pluton that is nearly horizontal and forms when
magma exploits a weakness between sedimentary layers.
A) dike
B) sill
C) batholith
D) laccolith
Accretionary wedges will form along a(n) ________ tectonic boundary.
A) Convergent
B) Divergent
C) Transform
Dinosaurs and large mammals coexisted during the Mesozoic era.
What seismic shadowing zone is visible in this image?
A) P-wave shadow
B) S-wave shadow
C) Surface wave shadow
D) Seismic ray shadow
What is the wave base?
A) Water depth equal to 1/2 the distance between successive waves
B) Maximum wave height based on wind velocity
C) The minimum elevation of a wave before it will start to curl
D) The distance up the shore where waves can erode
What radioactive material is the main fuel used to produce nuclear energy?
A) Uranium-238
B) Uranium-235
C) Lead-207
D) Thorium-232
________ is the driving force in orogenesis.
A) Extension
B) Convection
C) Temperature
D) Subduction

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