Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition

PHY 50462

August 23, 2017
________ are mixtures of clay, sand, and bitumen.
A) Tar pits
B) Oil sands
C) Oil shales
D) Gas hydrates
________ is a biochemical sedimentary rock that often forms in carbonate reefs.
A) Limestone
B) Chert
C) Rock Salt
D) Bituminous Coal
Which of the following physical features are found on both Mars and Earth?
A) Active volcanoes
B) Heavily cratered landscape preserved from early planetary histories
C) Oceans with liquid water
D) Erosional features related to flowing water
What groundwater feature forms where the water table intersects with the Earth's
surface, creating a natural outflow of groundwater?
A) Fumarole
B) Sinkhole
C) Lake
D) Spring
________ is molten rock that is below the Earth's surface and retains most of its
volcanic gases.
A) Lava
B) Pumice
C) Magma
D) Volatiles
Select the choice below that best describes the role of volatiles in an ascending magma.
A) Volatiles increase the rate of crystallization in intrusive structures.
B) Volatiles will force the magma to contract as it rises.
C) Volatiles will shatter surrounding rocks, making it easier for the magma to rise.
D) Volatiles will expand with decreasing pressure, then melt upward.
The Hawaiian mantle plume has left a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts
stretching back for ~70 million years. Although the mantle plume has remained
relatively stationary, the Pacific plate above it has moved. Use the figure to answer the
following question.
What direction was the Pacific plate moving between 65 and 43 million years ago?
A) North
B) Southeast
C) East
D) West
E) Northwest
What is the name of the rock in the above image?
A) Breccia
B) Limestone
C) Shale
D) Coquina
What is porosity?
A) Volume of pore space in a material
B) Ability to transmit water
C) When ice crystals deform and slide past each other
D) Dissolution of carbonate rock due to acid
A(n) ________ flood will occur when an engineered structure fails and releases large
quantities of stored water.
A) ice-jam
B) regional
C) flash flood
D) dam-failure
What will happen to a seismic wave when it is reflected?
A) The wave will be bent.
B) The wave will undulate.
C) The wave will be bounced back toward its source.
D) Nothing will change the wave.
________ will occur when continental collisions occur, thickening the crust and forcing
some rocks to a depth where melting can take place.
A) Decompression melting
B) Rifting
C) Extension
D) Partial melting
Secondary vents on composite cones can generate ________ volcanoes.
A) shield
B) cinder cone
C) additional composite cone
Determine the type of stress necessary to produce each of the following geologic
regions/features. (Note: Some choices will be used more than once.)
A) Shear
B) Tension
C) Compression
1. Basin and Range province
2. San Andreas Fault
3. Grand Teton Mountains
4. Appalachian Mountains
5. Dakota Hogback
The American Cordillera is location from ________.
A) Maine to Canada
B) Cape Horn to Alaska
C) Georgia to Newfoundland
D) Texas to Arizona
________ is a strong current formed by backwash concentrated into small channels and
flows rapidly away from the beach.
A) Refraction
B) Rip currents
C) Eddies
D) Longshore currents
A large wave generated by an earthquake off the coast of Chile can travel across the
Pacific Ocean to reach the shores of Alaska.
For which applications (according to this image) is nuclear power used?
A) Transportation
B) Electric power
C) Residential and commercial
D) Industrial
________ are responsible for the heat generated in the interior today.
A) Meteorite impacts
B) Magma plutons
C) Short-lived radioactive isotopes
D) Nuclear reactions
Which of the following rocks would be more likely to experience brittle deformation
rather than ductile deformation when subjected to stresses that exceed their strength?
A) Rock salt
B) Sandstone
C) Schist
D) Quartzite
Why will metamorphic rocks found in a contact metamorphism aureole be nonfoliated?
A) Because the main agent of metamorphism is heat, which will result in intergrown
B) Because the pressures involved with contact metamorphism destroy foliated crystals
C) Because the temperatures associated with this are too low to alter the rock
D) Because the velocity of the hydrothermal fluids will carry foliated materials away
P waves moving through the base of continents move at about ________ km/sec, but
once they cross the Moho, the velocity changes to ________ km/sec.
A) 8; 4
B) 2; 10
C) 6; 8
D) 3; 9
Match the parent isotope with the correct daughter isotope. (Note: Some answers will
be used more than once.)
A) Lead
B) Strontium
C) Argon
D) Nitrogen
1. Uranium
2. Potassium
3. Carbon
4. Thorium
5. Rubidium
In what climate(s) is solifluction prevalent?
A) Topics
B) Tundra and subarctic
C) Arid
D) Temperate and humid
________ is an elevation point above which snow remains throughout the year.
A) Firn
B) Snowline
C) Grounding line
D) Surge
Subduction of the ________ Plate beneath the North American Plate at approximately
60 million years ago resulted in the ________ Orogeny that created the Rocky
A) Pacific; Taconic
B) South American; Nevadan
C) Farallon; Laramide
D) African; Alleghanian
If the age of a mountain range is inversely proportional to its height, in what two
regions are the youngest mountain ranges found today?
A) The circum-Atlantic belt and southern Europe/Asia
B) Western South America and the Appalachians of North America
C) The circum-Pacific belt and southern Europe/Asia
D) Scandinavia and Eastern Africa
Which planet displays retrograde rotation?
A) Venus
B) Mars
C) Neptune
D) Saturn
Which beach stabilization technique requires dumping many truckloads of sand on a
beach to build it up?
A) Beach nourishment
B) Relocation
C) Groins
D) Seawalls
Which of the following is not a method of obtaining samples and observations of the
oceanic ridge system?
A) Finding segments of ocean floor that have been thrust up onto the continent
B) Visual inspections using submersible equipment
C) Deep sea core samples
D) Side-scan sonar
Which igneous rock will form through crystallization in a fluid-rich environment with
enhanced ion migration?
A) Scoria
B) Pegmatite
C) Obsidian
D) Basalt
Why would geologic mapping be difficult in an area dominated by accreted terranes?
A) The geology is so similar that it would be difficult to determine terrane boundaries
B) Each terrane is geologically distinct, but also highly deformed
C) Isostatic rebound would result in gravitational collapse to make them indistinct
D) Terranes are very old and terribly eroded