PHY 42817

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Authors
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Which of the following materials will allow for the fastest transmission of seismic
waves?
A) Rigid, less compressible material
B) Material that has been slightly heated
C) Partially molten material
D) Molten material
________ is the name for glacial deposits that have been lithified into a sedimentary
rock.
A) Tillite
B) Loessite
C) Sandstone
D) Schist
Which of the following locations experienced a cooling climate during the period from
1950-2014?
A) Eastern Brazil
B) Off the coast of Antarctica
C) North Central Canada
D) Northern Asia
How will explosive volcanic eruptions affect global temperatures?
A) Temperatures will raise
B) Temperatures will lower
C) Temperatures will remain the same
What is the molecule for ozone?
A) O2
B) CO2
C) O3
D) H2O
What is the difference between a reverse fault and a thrust fault?
A) A reverse fault is the result of compression, and a thrust fault is the result of tension.
B) A reverse fault lengthens the crust, whereas a thrust fault shortens the crust.
C) A thrust fault has a fault angle of less than 45, whereas the angle of a reverse fault is
greater.
D) Reverse faults are associated with convergent boundaries, and thrust faults are
associated with transform boundaries
What coastal erosion stabilizers are visible in this image?
A) Headlands
B) Jetties
C) Breakwaters
D) Groins
Volcanic island arcs are found near which features on the seafloor?
A) Abyssal plains
B) Coral atolls
C) Deep-ocean trenches
D) Rift zones
Aluminum laterite is also known as the mineral ________.
A) calcite
B) olivine
C) hematite
D) bauxite
What generates the magma necessary for seafloor spreading?
A) Decompression melting
B) Partial melting
C) Mantle plumes
D) Subduction
A black, organic residue of an ancient fern would be an example of which type of
fossilization?
A) Permineralization
B) Mummification
C) Replacement
D) Carbonization
When will a deepwater wave change to a shallow water wave as it approaches shore?
A) Wave period > twice the water depth
B) Wavelength = 1/2 water depth
C) Wavelength = 2 times water depth
D) Wave period > 1/2 water depth
Ice shelves are grounded in ________ and float in ________.
A) saltwater; freshwater
B) shallow water; deep water
C) freshwater; shallow water
D) deep water; shallow water
Why is conduction not an efficient way to move heat through most of the Earth?
A) Radioactive decay generates too much heat.
B) Molecules are too far apart to transfer heat via that method.
C) Rocks are poor conductors of heat.
D) Radiation is the most efficient way to move heat through the interior.
In the whole-mantle convection model, what feature balances the deeply descending
lithosphere by transporting hot material toward the surface?
A) Kimberlites
B) Decompression melting
C) Mantle plumes
D) Rift zones
How will rock salt likely respond when put under stress?
A) It will fault
B) It will bend or flow
C) It will dissolve
D) It will fragment
What process is illustrated in this image?
A) Formation of a bajada
B) Rainshadow effect
C) Saltation
D) Migration of sand dunes
The primary basis for classifying detrital rocks is ________, whereas the primary basis
for classifying chemical rocks is ________.
A) particle shape; trace elements
B) crystalline structure; Sorting
C) particle size; mineral composition
D) sorting; density
Detachment faults are low-angle ________ faults.
A) thrust
B) normal
C) reverse
D) strike-slip
Put the four phases of lunar surface formation in order from the oldest to the youngest.
(Note: "First" refers to the oldest event whereas "Fourth" refers to the youngest event.)
A) Excavation of large impact basins
B) Formation of rayed craters
C) Filling of mare basins
D) Formation of original crust
1. First
2. Second
3. Third
4. Fourth
Because the early Earth was a large sphere of magma, the earliest rocks that formed
here were recycled into the mantle long ago. What is the age of the oldest
radiometrically dated rocks discovered on the planet? (Or, what is the age of the oldest
remaining rocks on Earth?)
A) 6,000 years old
B) 4.6 million years old
C) 4 billion years old
D) 4.6 billion years old
Which of the following does not contribute to destruction from seismic vibrations?
A) Intensity and duration of vibrations
B) Geologic material beneath the structure
C) Building materials and practices
D) Proximity to water sources
How can contact metamorphism result in the deposition of ore deposits?
A) Magma differentiates during cooling, leaving the ores to settle out to the bottom of
the magma chamber.
B) Hot, mineral-rich water exits the seafloor, resulting in instant precipitation of
minerals.
C) Hot magma burns the country rock, which experiences a mineral phase change.
D) Hot fluids in contact with the country rock can result in chemical reactions that
facilitate the migration of metallic ions.
What property of the crust allowed it to form as the exterior of Earth?
A) Magma at the surface cooled and crystallized before anything in the interior.
B) Materials that make up the crust are less dense and rose to the top.
C) Churning and upheaval in the interior thrust crustal rocks toward the surface.
D) Meteorites impacting Earth deposited this material at the surface.
Which of the following would make the best index fossil: olenellus (522-510 million
years ago), flexicalymene (~490-418 million years ago), and phacops (~418-360
million years ago).
A) Olenellus
B) Flexicalymene
C) Phacops
Which of the following changes are not evidence of migrating magma?
A) Changes in the pattern of earthquakes produced by moving magma
B) Molten rock flowing down the flank of a volcanic cone
C) Increase in ground temperature
D) Changes in the volcanic gases released from the volcano
Which region would have the best potential for solar energy?
A) Alaska
B) Iowa
C) Arizona
D) Georgia
The lithosphere is broken into ________ major plates and many minor plates.
A) seven
B) nine
C) twelve
D) fifteen
________ is the process where calcium ions in limestone are replaced with magnesium
or small amounts of iron.
A) Permineralization
B) Replacement
C) Precipitation
D) Dolomitization
How is it possible for a landslide to occur without a trigger?
A) Heating from geothermal processes weakens the rock.
B) Long-term weathering weakens the rock past the strength necessary to maintain
stability.
C) Slopes are shaken by earthquakes and the materials are loosened.
D) Water migrates along the sediment particles, reducing friction between them.

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