Marketing Chapter 14 Convenience Samples Are Nonprobability Samples And Are Typically Not Representative

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Basic Marketing Research 9th Edition
Authors
Gilbert A. Churchill, Tom J. Brown, Tracy A. Suter
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1. Which of the following are valid population elements?
a.
People
b.
Businesses
c.
Financial transactions
d.
All of these could be used as population elements.
e.
None of these could be used as population elements.
ANSWER:
d
RATIONALE:
All of these are valid population elements. See 14-1: Defining the Target Population.
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14.01 - Explain the difference between a parameter and a statistic.
DATE CREATED:
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DATE MODIFIED:
9/20/2017 3:10 PM
2. A complete canvass of a population is called a
a.
sample.
b.
census.
c.
sampling frame.
d.
population.
e.
directory.
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3. Samples are often used to infer something about a population rather than canvassing the population itself because
they are typically
a.
cheaper than complete counts.
b.
faster than complete counts.
c.
more accurate than complete counts.
d.
None of these are correct.
e.
All of these are correct.
ANSWER:
e
RATIONALE:
All of these are aspects of samples. See 14-1: Defining the Target Population.
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POINTS:
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
14.01 - Explain the difference between a parameter and a statistic.
DATE CREATED:
7/31/2017 3:28 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
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4. Ten volunteers are requested from your class to test a new bicycle. Of these ten, two are selected at random for the
actual tests. The sampling frame consists of
a.
the students who were selected for the actual tests.
b.
the students who volunteered.
c.
all the students in the class.
d.
the students who were not selected.
e.
all the students in the school.
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5. A sampling frame
a.
is a list of population elements from which the sample will be drawn.
b.
is the list of population elements actually included in the sample.
c.
usually provides biased statistics.
d.
is a form of probability sampling.
e.
is a form of nonprobability sampling.
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6. Which of the following is NOT a problem with using a phone book for a sampling frame?
a.
Unlisted phone numbers
b.
Not all homes have phones.
c.
Double counting homes with multiple phone numbers
d.
The phone book is always outdated.
e.
All of these are problems when sampling from phone books.
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7. In general, the simpler the definition of the target population
a.
the greater the sampling error.
b.
the easier it will be to find the sample.
c.
the less costly it will be to find the sample.
d.
the greater the sample error and the easier it will be to find the sample.
e.
the easier and less costly it will be to find the sample.
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8. The listing of elements from which you'll draw the sample is called the
a.
population.
b.
sampling frame.
c.
sample.
d.
census.
e.
parameter.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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9. If your population is relatively small, it's a good idea to use which of the following?
a.
Probability sample
b.
Nonprobability sample
c.
Census
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
a or b are correct.
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10. The problem with using nonprobability samples include that
a.
it's impossible to assess the degree of sampling error.
b.
we can't say anything about what would have been true for the overall population.
c.
we're stuck with sample statistics and don't know whether they apply to the population as a whole.
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
None of these are correct.
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11. Which of the following is NOT a nonprobability sampling technique?
a.
Convenience sample
b.
Simple random sample
c.
Judgment sample
d.
Snowball sample
e.
Quota sample
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12. Convenience samples are appropriate for use in which type of research?
a.
Descriptive
b.
Causal
c.
Exploratory
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
Convenience samples are not appropriate for any type of research.
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13. The distinguishing feature of nonprobability sampling plans is that
a.
they allow an assessment of sampling error.
b.
they are not as representative of the population as probability samples.
c.
they involve personal judgment somewhere in the selection of sample elements.
d.
there is only one basic type of nonprobability sample while there are several types of probability samples.
e.
they tend to be more expensive than probability samples.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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14. In probability samples, the probabilities of each element being included must be
a.
known.
b.
nonzero.
c.
equal.
d.
known and equal.
e.
known and nonzero.
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15. Which of the following is a probability sample?
a.
Quota sample
b.
Convenience sample
c.
Cluster sample
d.
Judgment sample
e.
Snowball sample
ANSWER:
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16. All of the following are probability sampling plans EXCEPT
a.
quota.
b.
area.
c.
cluster.
d.
simple random.
e.
systematic.
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17. One of the major problems with mail surveys is nonresponse bias. In an effort to minimize this, a researcher decides
to limit the sample to his personal friends from whom he is sure to get replies. This is an example of a
a.
probability sample.
b.
nonprobability sample.
c.
random sample.
d.
sequential sample.
e.
quota sample.
ANSWER:
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18. While giving guidelines to her field interviewing staff, a researcher states, "I want you to interview every tenth
customer entering a Kmart store at the following key sites." This is an example of ____ sampling.
a.
judgment
b.
quota
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c.
sequential
d.
systematic
e.
convenience
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19. Convenience samples
a.
take place at 7-11, Stop & Go, or other convenience stores.
b.
are nonprobability samples.
c.
are typically not representative of the entire population.
d.
take place at convenience stores and are nonprobability samples.
e.
are nonprobability samples and are typically not representative of the entire population.
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20. Judgment samples are distinguished by the fact that
a.
those entering the sample happen to be where the study is being done when it is being done.
b.
the proportion of those possessing a given characteristic is balanced against the proportion of the population
possessing the characteristic.
c.
each field worker is allowed to judge whether any given respondent would be a good representative of the
population.
d.
the sample elements are hand-picked by the investigator because it is expected they can offer the
contributions sought.
e.
they are superior to other forms of sampling for descriptive studies.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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21. Snowball samples are an example of
a.
convenience sampling.
b.
judgment sampling.
c.
quota sampling.
d.
simple random sampling.
e.
stratified sampling.
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22. A sample where the respondent provides the names of other potential respondents is called a(n)
a.
judgment sample.
b.
snowball sample.
c.
quota sample.
d.
accidental sample.
e.
probability sample.
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23. Judgment samples are best used for
a.
causal research.
b.
exploratory research.
c.
hypothesis testing.
d.
descriptive research.
e.
experimental designs.
ANSWER:
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24. A researcher wants to interview members of the junior class in a local high school that are interested in attending
the local university in order to investigate their attitudes concerning the university's admissions policy. Although the
researcher suspects that many of the juniors are interested in at-tending, the researcher cannot get a list of juniors but
only has the names of the three students that have expressed their interest by writing to the admissions office. What
sampling procedure should the researcher use to assemble a sample of adequate size?
a.
Simple random sampling
b.
Referred sampling
c.
Snowball sampling
d.
Convenience sampling
e.
Quota sampling
ANSWER:
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25. Quota samples are typically selected so that the distribution of a characteristic in the sample matches the
distribution of that same characteristic in the population. With respect to the representativeness of quota samples, it
can thus be said that
a.
a quota sample may be very far off the mark with respect to other important characteristics likely to
influence the result but which were not used as controls when selecting the sample.
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b.
the fact that the distribution of the characteristic in the sample parallels the distribution in the population
does not guarantee that the sample is representative.
c.
Neither of these are correct.
d.
Both of these are correct.
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26. Which of the following is TRUE?
a.
The controls for a quota sample are usually chosen on the basis that (1) they are believed to be correlated
with the characteristic to be studied, and (2) reasonably up-to-date information on their distribution within
the population is available.
b.
To validate a quota sample, various characteristics of the sample are compared to known population values. If
the differences in these characteristics are small in the comparison, this constitutes proof that the sample
corresponds to the population.
c.
Quota sampling is the most common kind of probability sampling used in marketing research.
d.
Quota sampling is the only nonprobability sampling method that provides some measure of the sampling
error associated with the sample estimate.
e.
Quota sampling is acceptable for causal research.
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27. A researcher wants to study the effects of social class on consumption behavior. He establishes three different
categories of social class in terms of amount of income. He then assigns each field worker a specified number of
interviews with people in each income category although the interviewers are allowed to select who they interview. This
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is an example of
a.
probability sampling.
b.
stratified sampling.
c.
systematic sampling.
d.
quota sampling.
e.
random sampling.
ANSWER:
d
RATIONALE:
This is an example of quota sampling. See 14-3: Selecting a Sampling Procedure.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
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Apply
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
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False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
14.03 - List the primary types of nonprobability samples.
DATE CREATED:
7/31/2017 4:46 AM
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7/31/2017 4:47 AM
28. The distinguishing feature of probability samples is that
a.
they involve personal judgment somewhere in the selection of sample elements.
b.
each population element has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
c.
each population element has an equal chance of being included in the sample, and every combination of n
population elements is a sample possibility.
d.
each population element has a known chance of being included in the sample.
e.
they will always be more representative of the population than nonprobability samples.
ANSWER:
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29. Which of the following statements does NOT describe a probability sample?
a.
Some members of the population have a zero chance of being included in the sample.
b.
Each member of the population has a known chance of being included in the sample.
c.
Each member may not have an equal chance of being included in the sample.
d.
A member's probability of inclusion is determined by the specific procedure that is used to select sample
elements.
e.
The concept of sampling distribution is crucial.
ANSWER:
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30. Which of the following is NOT a probability sample?
a.
Simple random sample
b.
Stratified sample
c.
Cluster sample
d.
Judgment sample
e.
All of these are probability samples.
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31. A problem with nonprobability samples is
a.
they are always more representative than probability samples.
b.
one cannot assess the amount of sampling error likely to occur.
c.
there is no problem with using nonprobability samples
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
None of these are correct.
ANSWER:
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32. A researcher wants to be able to assess the amount of "sampling error" associated with an estimate. Which of the
following sampling methods would you recommend she use?
a.
Convenience
b.
Quota
c.
Nonprobability
d.
Probability
e.
Judgment
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33. The distinguishing features of a simple random sample are that
a.
each population element has a known chance of being selected.
b.
each population element has an equal chance of being selected.
c.
every combination of n population elements is a sample possibility.
d.
None of these are correct.
e.
All of these are correct.
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34. A parameter represents
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a.
the geographical boundary of a population.
b.
certain characteristics of a random sample.
c.
fixed characteristics of a population.
d.
fixed characteristics of a nonprobability sample.
e.
an unbiased estimator of the population mean.
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35. Population variance is
a.
an unbiased estimator of sample variance.
b.
equivalent to the standard error of the mean.
c.
always unknown when using probability sampling.
d.
a measure of the spread of values from their mean.
e.
always known when using probability sampling.
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36. A derived population refers to
a.
estimates of population parameters derived from nonprobability sampling plans.
b.
the best samples that can be drawn from a population using multiple sampling schemes.
c.
the sample drawn from the parent population using a simple random sampling plan.
d.
a division of the parent population made to reduce the parent population to manageable size.
e.
all the possible samples that can be drawn from the parent population using a given sampling plan.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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37. Judgement samples are appropriate
a.
in the early stages of research when ideas or insights are being sought.
b.
when the researcher realizes the limitations of judgment samples.
c.
when it is the only way to develop a sample of people who meet specific criteria that don't occur frequently
and/or cannot easily be observed.
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
Judgement samples are never appropriate.
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38. The type of sampling plan where the specific sampling elements are left to the discretion of the researcher is
a.
quota.
b.
simple random.
c.
systematic.
d.
cluster.
e.
None of these are correct.
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39. Which of the following is NOT true for simple random sampling?
a.
Each element has a known chance of being selected.
b.
Each element has a non-zero chance of being selected.
c.
Each element has an equal chance of being selected.
d.
Each combination of n population elements has an equal chance of being selected.
e.
All of these are true statements.
ANSWER:
e
RATIONALE:
All of these are true statements. See 14-3: Selecting a Sampling Procedure.
POINTS:
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Easy
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40. The sampling distribution of a statistic refers to the
a.
range of all possible sample values of the statistic that could be drawn from the parent population under the
specified sampling plan.
b.
distribution of the variable in the parent population.
c.
distribution of the variable in a particular sample.
d.
spread of the variable in the parent population.
e.
unbiased nature of most sample statistics.
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41. With a probability sampling plan
a.
every population element has some chance of being included in the sample.
b.
there is a random component in how population elements are selected for the sample.
c.
we can make inferences to the larger population based on the results from the sample.
d.
we can estimate the likely amount of sampling error.
e.
All of these are correct.
ANSWER:
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42. The range within which to population parameter is likely to fall in the population based on the sample statistic is
known as the
a.
confidence frame.
b.
sampling interval.
c.
confidence interval.
d.
sampling frame.
e.
parameter interval.
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43. Which sampling plan takes advantage of the fact that, all else equal, smaller samples are required to estimate a
population parameter if there is little variation on the characteristic in the group being sampled?
a.
Area
b.
Stratified
c.
Snowball
d.
Simple random
e.
Quota
ANSWER:
b
RATIONALE:
This is a stratified sampling plan. See 14-3: Selecting a Sampling Procedure.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
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Apply
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Multiple Choice
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False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
14.04 - List the primary types of probability samples.
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44. Which of the following is needed before a confidence interval can be established for a population mean?
a.
A confidence level
b.
A point estimate of the population mean
c.
An estimate of the sampling error associated with the sample mean
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
None of these are correct.
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45. In order to use a table of random numbers to draw a simple random sample, the researcher must
a.
serially number the sample elements.
b.
specify the parent population distribution.
c.
calculate the population variance.
d.
serially number the population elements.
e.
assume that the central-limit theorem holds for the population in question.
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46. The feature that distinguishes stratified sampling from other forms of probability sampling is that only stratified
samples
a.
involve partitioning the parent population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets.
b.
allow the a priori determination of the probability that any population element will be included in the
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sample.
c.
make the probability of selection of any population element equal.
d.
involve partitioning the parent population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets and selecting a
simple random sample from each subset.
e.
None of these are correct.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
47. Which of the following factors affect the size of a sample needed when working with a probabilistic sample?
a.
The amount of diversity or variation of the parameter in question within the population
b.
How precise the estimate must be
c.
The degree of confidence you'd like to have
d.
All of these are correct.
e.
None of these are correct.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
48. A researcher divides the population of the purchasers of Brand X into heavy and light users. He then chooses a
random sample independently from each group. This is an example of ____ sampling.
a.
nonprobability
b.
random
c.
judgmental
d.
stratified
e.
quota
ANSWER:
d

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