Marketing Chapter 12 Temperature Scale Graphicrating Scale Itemized Rating Scale Answer Rationale This Example The

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Basic Marketing Research 9th Edition
Authors
Gilbert A. Churchill, Tom J. Brown, Tracy A. Suter
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ANSWER:
d
RATIONALE:
The most widely used attitude-scaling technique is the summated-ratings (Likert) scale. See 12-2:
Measuring Attitudes and Other Unobservable Concepts.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:
False
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 5:30 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 5:32 AM
48. The attitude ratings scale with which we might use a snake diagram is
a.
the itemized-ratings scale.
b.
the semantic-differential scale.
c.
the graphic-ratings scale.
d.
the summated-ratings (Likert) scale.
e.
the comparative-ratings scale.
ANSWER:
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49. What type of scale is the following? “Cars manufactured by South Korean companies are of (place on "X" on the
point of this spectrum that represents your view) Poor Quality/High Quality”
a.
Stapel scale
b.
Likert scale
c.
Temperature scale
d.
Graphic-rating scale
e.
Itemized rating scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
50. What type of scale is the following? “Indicate your opinion about services Delta Airlines provides, by placing an "X" at
the appropriate position on the lines to the right of the services below. ServicesVery Bad/Very Good: Frequent flyer
program/Continental magazine/On flight food service”
a.
Stapel scale
b.
Likert scale
c.
Temperature scale
d.
Graphic-rating scale
e.
Itemized rating scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
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51. What type of scale is the following? “Indicate your overall opinion about Dell computers by circling one of the
following categories: Very Bad/Bad/Good/Very Good: 1 2 3 4”
a.
Stapel scale
b.
Likert scale
c.
Temperature scale
d.
Graphic-rating scale
e.
Itemized rating scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
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52. Which attitude rating scale uses pairs of bipolar words or phrases and is particularly useful in corporate, brand, and
product-images studies?
a.
Itemized-ratings scale
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b.
Semantic-differential scale
c.
Graphic-ratings scale
d.
Summated-ratings (Likert) scale
e.
Comparative-ratings scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
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53. Which attitude rating scale offers respondents the greatest degree of freedom in providing answers?
a.
Itemized-ratings scale
b.
Semantic-differential scale
c.
Graphic-ratings scale
d.
Summated-ratings (Likert) scale
e.
Comparative-ratings scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
54. Which attitude rating scale is good for eliminating the halo effect that is common in scaling?
a.
Itemized-ratings scale
b.
Semantic-differential scale
c.
Graphic-ratings scale
d.
Summated-ratings (Likert) scale
e.
Comparative-ratings scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
55. An attitude rating scale that uses a set of faces, varying systematically in terms of whether they are frowning or
smiling, to capture a person's satisfaction or preference is an example of which of the following?
a.
Itemized-ratings scale
b.
Semantic-differential scale
c.
Graphic-ratings scale
d.
Summated-ratings (Likert) scale
e.
Comparative-ratings scale
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
56. People magazine conducts an annual survey across 25 Asian countries and asks respondents to rate automobiles
across 30 attributes. The questions ask the consumers to rate each brand from 1=low to 5=high on quality, value, image,
price, etc. This is an example of
a.
self-report attitude measures.
b.
measuring attitude using physiological reaction.
c.
indirect technique to measure attitude
d.
direct observation of attitude-related behavior.
e.
performance of objective tasks to determine attitudes.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
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57. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.
It is true about psychological measurement that the situation in which the measurement is obtained can
affect the score obtained.
b.
Random error is also known as constant error. This is due to the fact that there are typically an equal number
of positive and negative errors that yield a constant sum.
c.
The validity of a measurement instrument refers to the extent to which differences in scores reflect true
differences among entities on the characteristic that the instrument seeks to measure.
d.
All of these are false.
e.
None of these are false.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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58. Of the many sources of differences of scores, the researcher is especially interested in isolating the differences due
to
a.
situational factors.
b.
variations in administration.
c.
mechanical factors.
d.
true differences in the characteristic.
e.
the sampling of items.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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DATE CREATED:
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59. While completing a survey on attitudes toward house ownership, John was hit by an attack of indigestion. Which of
the following best accounts for the difference between John's and another respondent's scores?
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a.
A true difference in attitudes
b.
A true difference in personality between John and Bob
c.
A difference due to temporary personal factors
d.
A difference due to situational factors
e.
A difference due to variations in administration.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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HAS VARIABLES:
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DATE CREATED:
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60. Due to a misunderstanding of his instructions, a research assistant consistently entered the upper value of an
attitude scale as a "6" instead of a "7" when keypunching data for his boss. This is an example of
a.
systematic error.
b.
researcher error.
c.
random error.
d.
scaling error.
e.
marginal error.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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DATE CREATED:
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61. An advertiser has developed a television advertisement designed to create a "feeling of warmth" on the part of
viewers because she believes that this will lead to positive attitudes toward the product and ultimately to increased
sales. In order to determine if the ad does produce the desired feelings in viewers, she has devised a three-item scale to
measure the warmth construct. After viewing the commercial (independently), Joe had a score of 15 on the warmth
scale, and Perry had a score of 9. Which of the following is NOT a potential source of difference between these scores?
a.
True differences with regard to the feeling of warmth created by the ad.
b.
Perry had a rotten day at work, while Joe had a good day.
c.
The sampling of items chosen to measure warmth could have contributed to the difference in scores.
d.
Perry and Joe interpreted one of the questions differently.
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e.
All of these are potential sources of differences between the scores.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
62. An advertiser has developed a television advertisement designed to create a "feeling of warmth" on the part of
viewers because she believes that this will lead to positive attitudes toward the product and ultimately to increased
sales. In order to determine if the ad does produce the desired feelings in viewers, she has devised a three-item scale to
measure the warmth construct. After viewing the commercial (independently), Joe had a score of 15 on the warmth
scale, and Perry had a score of 9. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.
The scale used is likely to be at least as reliable as a ten-item scale because a ten-item scale is more likely to
inadvertently tap into constructs other than warmth.
b.
If Joe and Perry had viewed the commercial and listened to instruction together at the same time and then
had completed the scales, at least one source of variation might have been greatly reduced.
c.
It is possible that Perry's lower score might have resulted from accidentally checking the wrong response.
d.
Some relatively stable characteristic of an individual, such as Perry's unwillingness to share the actual
intensity of his feelings, might have contributed to the difference in the two scores.
e.
Joe did not necessarily have "warmer" feelings toward the ad than Perry.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
63. In a recent survey, those who brushed their teeth often under-reported the activity, while those who brushed their
teeth less frequently over-reported their dental hygiene behavior. The possible cause for differences in scores could best
be attributed to
a.
a true difference in the characteristic being measured.
b.
differences due to situational factors.
c.
differences due to temporary personal factors.
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d.
true differences in other relatively stable characteristics of the individuals.
e.
differences due to variations in administration.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
64. Validity is
a.
concerned with the relationships of random error with systematic error.
b.
equal to the true score plus the systematic error.
c.
equal to the true score plus systematic error minus random error.
d.
concerned with the extent to which differences in scores reflect true differences in the characteristic.
e.
concerned with the extent to which differences in scores reflect instability in the measurements.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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HAS VARIABLES:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
65. One hundred sports writers are given a survey and asked to rank basketball players on categories such as
rebounding, points scored, and assists. The results of the survey indicate that most sports writers agree on the top ten
players within the given categories. This is evidence of
a.
reliability.
b.
validity.
c.
random error.
d.
response error.
e.
systematic error.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
66. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.
If a measure is reliable, it is not heavily influenced by transitory factors that cause random errors.
b.
If an item lacks correlation with other scale items measuring the same construct, there is evidence that the
item does not belong and should be deleted.
c.
Systematic error is due to temporary aspects of the person or measurement situation, which affects the
measurement in irregular ways.
d.
Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for establishing the validity of a measure.
e.
If a set of items all measure the same construct, the responses to the items should be correlated.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
67. The first step in developing a measure of marketing constructs is to
a.
generate sample items.
b.
purify the measure.
c.
assess validity.
d.
specify the domain of the construct.
e.
collect data.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
68. A study was done on the campus of a major state institution to measure attitudes of students to-wards the recent
fee increase. One question asks respondents to rank the five fees they are willing to pay from 1=most willing to 5=least
willing. This is scaled as a(n)
a.
nominal scale.
b.
ordinal scale.
c.
interval scale.
d.
ratio scale.
e.
None of these are correct.
ANSWER:
b
RATIONALE:
This is an example of an ordinal scale. See 12-1: Scales of Measurement.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Apply
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:26 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:27 AM
69. What type of scale is the following? “What was your annual gross income (before taxes) last year? $____.”
a.
Nominal scale
b.
Ordinal scale
c.
Interval scale
d.
Ratio scale
e.
Constant-sum scale
ANSWER:
d
RATIONALE:
This is an example of the ratio scale. See 12-1: Scales of Measurement.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Apply
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:28 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:29 AM
70. What type of scale is the following? "What is your gender? 1 Male 2 Female”
a.
Nominal scale
b.
Ordinal scale
c.
Interval scale
d.
Ratio scale
e.
Likert scale
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ANSWER:
a
RATIONALE:
This is an example of the nominal scale. See 12-1: Scales of Measurement.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:30 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:31 AM
71. A question that asks "How much you would be willing to pay in annual premium for a $100,000 home insurance
policy" in the following way: “Check appropriate category____ < $25 per month/____ $26 to $40 month/____ $41 to
$55 month/____ > $55 per month” would be scaled as a(n)
a.
nominal scale.
b.
ordinal scale.
c.
interval scale.
d.
ratio scale.
e.
Likert scale.
ANSWER:
c
RATIONALE:
This is an example of the interval scale. See 12-1: Scales of Measurement.
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Apply
QUESTION TYPE:
Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:31 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:33 AM
72. If a respondent says his income is "Over $100,000 per annum" when, in fact, it is "$50,000 per annum", the
difference between the true and actual measurement of income in this case could be said to be LACK of
a.
reliability.
b.
validity.
c.
All of these are correct.
d.
None of these are correct.
e.
nominal scaling.
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
73. When the scale type is nominal, the appropriate measure of central tendency is ____. When the scale type is interval
or ratio, the appropriate measure of central tendency is ____.
a.
mode; mean
b.
median; mean
c.
mean; mode
d.
mean; median
e.
mode; median
ANSWER:
RATIONALE:
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DIFFICULTY:
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DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:
74. You should use the lowest level of measurement possible when developing a measure for some attribute.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.04 - List some other key decisions to be made when designing scales.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:37 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:38 AM
75. With nominal scales, the numbers used by a researcher don't mean anything other than simple individual or
category identification.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
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Page 32
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:39 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:40 AM
76. A useful property of all scales above the nominal level of measurement is that of order.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:40 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:41 AM
77. With an interval scale, the researcher can determine mean scores on measures in addition to median and modal
scales.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:41 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:42 AM
78. It is possible to compare the absolute magnitude of numbers when measurement is made on the basis of an interval
scale.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:42 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:43 AM
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79. Ratio scales can be used to do everything that interval, ordinal, and nominal scales can do.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:44 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:45 AM
80. Random error affects the measurement in a constant way.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:45 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:46 AM
81. Consistency is the hallmark of validity.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:46 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:47 AM
82. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for establishing the validity of a measure.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
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Page 34
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:47 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:48 AM
83. In general, when using itemized-rating scales, using five to nine categories works best.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.03 - Name some widely used attitude scaling techniques in marketing research.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:49 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:50 AM
84. A ratio scale allows the comparison of absolute magnitudes but not the differences in magnitude.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:50 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:51 AM
85. The most common approach to measuring attitudes is to obtain self-reports from respondents.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.03 - Name some widely used attitude scaling techniques in marketing research.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:51 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:52 AM
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Page 35
86. When using the ordinal scale, the chosen number scale reflects the relative standing of the different options for that
particular individual.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:53 AM
87. The key features of the summated-ratings scale are a set of statements with which respondents indicate a level of
agreement.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.03 - Name some widely used attitude scaling techniques in marketing research.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:54 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:55 AM
88. Error in measurement is also known as constant error because it affects the measurement in a constant way is called
systematic error.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:55 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:56 AM
89. Validity is the ability of a measure to obtain similar scores for the same object, trait, or construct across time, across
different evaluators, or across the items forming the measure.
a.
True
b.
False
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Page 36
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:56 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:57 AM
90. A ratio scale differs from an interval scale in that it possesses a natural or absolute zero that reflects the complete
absence of the attribute being assessed.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:58 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 6:59 AM
91. The four types of scales used to measure an attribute are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
True
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Remember
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.02 - List the four scales (levels) of measurement.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 6:59 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 7:00 AM
92. Any scale or other measurement instrument that actually measures what it was intended to measure is said to have
reliability.
a.
True
b.
False
ANSWER:
False
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Understand
QUESTION TYPE:
True / False
Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero.
Page 37
HAS VARIABLES:
False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
12.05 - Explain the concept of validity as it relates to survey items.
DATE CREATED:
7/28/2017 7:00 AM
DATE MODIFIED:
7/28/2017 7:01 AM
93. Discuss, in detail, the two types of error that may affect measurement scores.
ANSWER:
POINTS:
DIFFICULTY:
REFERENCES:
QUESTION TYPE:
HAS VARIABLES:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
DATE CREATED:
DATE MODIFIED:

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