Book Title
SuperVision and Instructional Leadership: A Developmental Approach (Allyn & Bacon Educational Leadership) 9th Edition

EDU 88546

July 4, 2017
Sergiovanni (1999) proposed viewing schools as communities rather than organizations.
How does his research show the difference between the organization and the
a. Communities create social lives with others
b. Organization has a system of hierarchies, roles and expectations.
c. Communities rely more on norms, purposes, and values when confronted by external
d. All of these
Schools can promote equity for LGBT students. How can this be done?
a. Establish school policy that protects and supports sexual minority
b. Affirm the rights of LGBT confirming in the school community
c. Develop self awareness through professional development
d. All of the these
Supervisors and teachers must collaboratively examine aspects of schooling that might
contribute to equity. What should be included in this examination?
a. School policies, including domestic partnership agreements between teachers
b. School climate prohibiting discrimination
c. Student achievement
d. Interactions in classroom and common areas
Which of the following researchers have applied action research concepts?
a. Calhoun (2009) discusses how teachers to improve instruction can conduct action
b. Hubbard and Power (1993) discusses the power of teacher-led research.
c. Schaefer (1967) discusses the importance of nurturing the power of scholar-teachers.
d. All of these.
Which of the following characteristics are described as teachers functioning at a low
development level?
a. Difficulty defining problems
b. Abstract reasoning
c. Decision-making
d. All of the above
During Step Five, the teacher can then judge, consider, and respond to the supervisor's
alternatives. Which of the following supervisory behavior was illustrated at this point in
the conference?
a. Presenting
b. Listening
c. Directing
d. All of these
What are the parts in the observation process?
a. Taking notes
b. Providing examples
c. Describing what is seen
d. Interpreting what it means
Schmuck and Runkey (1995) developed an operational model for action research.
Which of the following premises are used in this operational model?
a. Formal groups
b. Decision-making procedures
c. Implementation
d. All of the above
Formative observation means that the supervisor
a. observes what is happening in the classroom.
b. provides professional opportunities.
c. delineates goals for instruction.
d. all of these.
In Step Seven, the supervisor states, "I am going to provide a literacy coach, who will
assist you in understanding the strategies to promote more student engagement in
comprehension. This coach will be in your classroom every Tuesday for the next three
weeks." Which supervisory behavior is illustrated in this step?
a. Problem solving
b. Standardizing
c. Direction
d. All of these
When teachers are immersed in real practice situations and are guided or coached by
experienced colleagues, this may be called
a. cognitive apprenticeship
b. communities of practice
c. observations
d. All of the above
Nondirective supervision is
a. seldom used by supervisors.
b. readily used by supervisors.
c. used to manipulate a group to a predetermined decision.
d. all of the above.
Integrating school-wide, group, and individual professional development is essential to
have an organizational change in learning. How can this integration be ensured?
a. It is important that faculty provide input into establishing the school wide goal.
b. Faculty members may create instructional goals that are aligned with the broad
school wide goal.
c. Varying professional development may be developed to meet the needs of the faculty
study group.
d. All of the above
A broad set of principles that direct the change process may be informed as a result of
a. collaborative efforts between stakeholders in the community.
b. data gathering from external and internal research.
c. consideration of the need to reduce achievement gap between different groups.
d. All of these
Allen and Glickman (1998) state that to create a better understanding of the
complexities in school culture, one must do which of the following?
a. Lead the teachers through the prescribed outcomes.
b. Work with consultants to enable effective training of teachers.
c. Build trust with teachers.
d. Provide information and opportunities to interact on making decisions.
Which of the following may be included in the systematic observation of the classroom
process for formative evaluation?
a. Classroom movement
b. Student participation
c. Questioning
d. All of the above
The teacher responds to the inquiry regarding student issue in the auditorium and shares
his/her observations. The supervisor checks for the accuracy of the teacher's statements
and paraphrases what has happened. The supervisor then checks in with the teacher. The
supervisor used which of the following collaborative behaviors?
a. Clarifying
b. Listening
c. Encouraging
d. Reflecting
The supervisor asks the teacher for input into the solution during Step Two and Step
Six. For example, the supervisor may state, "It is expected that you increase your
student achievement in the area of literal comprehension and share the data for this
performance. In what ways would you share the evidence for your students'
performance?" Which supervisory behavior was displayed during Step Six?
a. Problem solving
b. Standardizing
c. Clarifying
d. All of these
Collegial support groups may be organized to
a. address common problems.
b. engage teachers in group inquiry.
c. implement innovations through common support.
d. all of the above
In Phase 3: Fostering Teacher Development promotes a degree of gaining new
knowledge, strategies, and sharing decisions. Teachers function at higher levels of
a. Instructional behaviors
b. Expertise
c. Consciousness
d. Commitment
Kohlberg's model of moral development emphasizes the
a. decision that are made according to individual, social norms, and principles and legal
b. levels of preconventional, conventional, to postconventional continuum.
c. higher levels as superior to enhancing the aim of all education.
d. All of these
Which of the following are attributes of a fully functioning school community?
a. Democracy and moral principles
b. Professional learning
c. Inquiry and engagement with the wider community
d. All of these
What are examples of feedback loops?
a. Student performance data
b. Administrative memos
c. Survey results
d. District policies
Which of the following statements are not correct for leadership discussion?
a. Group Evaluation " Should we look at our original goal for the program and compare
this to Phase 3 of the project?
b. Group Decision-making " What have we accomplished in our discussion up to this
c. Continuity to Discussion " Your comment is interesting, but how is this relevant to
the chief problem that we discussed.
d. All of the above
Christenson, Fendley, and Robinson (1989) created guidelines for schools to participate
in community development. Which of the following are the guidelines?
a. Connect the community development process directly to school development
b. Connect the community process to school learning
c. Coordinate participation with other community agencies and organizations.
d. Coordinate with organizations that clearly fit the standards
Change theorists have identified norms present in school cultures of continuous
improvement. What are the components for these norms?
a. Distributed supportive leadership
b. Collegiality and collaboration
c. Experimentation and risk taking
d. All of these
Self-evaluation is a method that will encourage teachers to improve their own
development, expertise, and commitment. Which examples would assist the teacher?
a. Keep a diary of instructional experiences and share with the peer or supervisor.
b. Develop artifacts of student work at the beginning and the end of a unit.
c. Use a consultant to give feedback on instructional strategies.
d. All of these.
Innovation has a greater chance for success once a critical mass of teachers reach the
impact stage. What is the focus of this stage?
a. Consequence
b. Collaboration
c. Refocusing
d. Management
Traditional planners need to change planning to include which of the following
a. Continuous assessment
b. Alternatives for performance
c. Ongoing stakeholder interactions
d. Decentralized planning
The teacher or group may be categorized according to the following development
a. Low
b. Moderate
c. High
d. Exceptional
Goodlad (2004) argues that educating students in democracy is essential to sustaining a
democratic society. Which is the following is not supporting his research?
a. School is the only institution that is suited to teach these ideals.
b. Historically, leaders have envisioned the essential role of public schooling to sustain
our republic.
c. Thoughtful men and women believed that the family sustained the community spirit.
d. All of the above
Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of learning guides the types of learning across content
areas. Which of these levels are accurate?
a. Lower Level " Knowledge and Comprehension
b. Intermediate Level " Synthesis and Application
c. Higher Level " Evaluation and Analysis
d. All of the above
Most conventional schools have
a. clear expectations for students and teachers
b. organized schedules prepared by administrators
c. teachers who are working with cooperative group of students.
d. informal approach to instruction.
Stephen Corey (1953) used Lewin's concept of action research to education. He stated
that traditional research is
a. done mainly by researchers outside the public schools.
b. not influential on school practice.
c. completed by individual teachers who work in schools.
d. all of these.
Banks (2000) discusses key elements in addressing diversity with our nation. What does
his research support in recognizing and legitimizing differences?
a. What groups will participate in constructing a new national identity?
b. What factors will be used to motivate powerful groups to share with power?
c. How does one develop a nation-state that reflects the culture of diverse populations?
d. All of these