Counseling Chapter 7 First Amendment Second Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Twentyfirst Amendment Discrimination The Indirect Result

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
An Introduction to Policing 9th Edition
Authors
John S. Dempsey, Linda S. Forst, Steven B. Carter
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Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
1. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration was created to provide legal counsel to minority officers regarding
job discrimination.
a.
True
b.
False
2. The first policewomen were working-class immigrants.
a.
True
b.
False
3. The IACP believes the recruitment of women is an important issue for law enforcement today.
a.
True
b.
False
4. Critics of affirmative action argue that selecting police officers based on their race and gender violates the 1964 Civil
Rights Act.
a.
True
b.
False
5. In a 1995 case, a state police agency agreed to provide back pay to white male troopers who claimed they were unfairly
passed over for promotions in favor of minority troopers.
a.
True
b.
False
6. The Supreme Court decision in Ricci v. DeStefano (2009) held that invalidating the results of test because no members
of a protected minority scored high enough to be considered for promotion violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
1964.
a.
True
b.
False
7. The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders stated that discriminatory police employment practices did not
contribute to the riots of the middle and late 1960s.
a.
True
b.
False
8. Prior to the 1960s, African American police officers employed by the NYPD were assigned only to African American
neighborhoods and were not assigned to specialized, high-profile units.
a.
True
b.
False
9. Reverse discrimination is a label used to describe the preferential treatment minority groups and women receive under
affirmative action.
a.
True
b.
False
10. The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals issued standards to reduce job
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discrimination based on race, gender, and ethnicity.
a.
True
b.
False
11. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 covered hiring, promotion, compensation, dismissal, and all other terms or conditions of
employment.
a.
True
b.
False
12. Academic research has shown that female officers are well received by the public.
a.
True
b.
False
13. In recent years, most states have adopted special job protections for gay workers.
a.
True
b.
False
14. Police departments do not address workplace dating because of privacy concerns.
a.
True
b.
False
Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
15. The book Black in Blue found that black police officers suffered from
a.
double marginality.
b.
double taxability.
c.
singular marginality.
d.
all of these choices.
16. Until the 1970s, it was presumed that women were not as capable of performing the same type of patrol duty
as men because
a.
of their gender and size.
b.
they could not testify in court.
c.
they were not good drivers.
d.
they would side with women in domestic disputes.
17. Which act was established with the goal of assisting local governments in reducing the incidence of crime
by increasing the effectiveness, fairness, and coordination of law enforcement and the criminal justice system?
a.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
b.
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
c.
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
d.
Civil Rights Act of 1991
18. Which of the following is not one of the possible causes for the acceptance of women in police departments
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in the late 1960s and early 1970s?
a.
The women’s rights movement
b.
Efforts by female officers to gain the right to perform patrol duty to achieve equality with male
officers
c.
Pressure applied on behalf of women by the International Association of Chiefs of Police
d.
1964 Civil Rights Act
19. Some people believe that consent decrees are no longer necessary to increase the numbers of women in law
enforcement because
a.
the numbers of female police officers continue to increase.
b.
consent decrees don’t work.
c.
the percentage of women in law enforcement is a result of self-selection.
d.
the percentage of women in law enforcement equals the percentage of women in society.
20. Which of the following is not a reason for the recent disappearance of institutional discrimination against
African Americans in police departments, according to Stephen Leinen?
a.
Legal events of the civil rights era
b.
The urban riots of the 1960s
c.
Efforts of black police officer organizations
d.
Social and political events of the civil rights era
21. The most prevalent form of discrimination has been
a.
separate job titles.
b.
disparate recruiting.
c.
de facto discrimination.
d.
standard discrimination.
22. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was designed to prohibit job discrimination based on all but which
of the following?
a.
Race and color
b.
Sexual orientation
c.
National origin
d.
Gender
23. Which of the following is not consistent with the findings of Professor Sean Grennan in his study of patrol
teams in New York City?
a.
There were no basic differences between the way males and females working as a patrol team reacted
to violent confrontations.
b.
Female police officers, in most cases, were far more emotionally stable than their male counterparts.
c.
Female officers were more likely to calm a potentially violent situation.
d.
Female officers were more likely to suffer on-the-job injuries.
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24. Which of the following cities has actively recruited openly gay police officers and has a large number of
openly gay officers relative to the city’s population?
a.
San Francisco
b.
Milwaukee
c.
San Diego
d.
Key West
25. Which Constitutional Amendment is the primary instrument governing employment equality, as well as all
equality, in U.S. society?
a.
First Amendment
b.
Second Amendment
c.
Fourteenth Amendment
d.
Twenty-First Amendment
26. _______________ discrimination is the indirect result of policies or practices that are not intended to
discriminate but do, in fact, discriminate.
a.
De facto
b.
By-product
c.
Reverse
d.
Circumlocutory
27. Before the 1940s, no black police officers worked in the Deep South; they were eliminated from the hiring
process because they
a.
posed a threat to white supremacy.
b.
did not have a high school diploma.
c.
were involved in too many use-of-force issues.
d.
refused to work under white commanders.
28. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA) of 1972
a.
expanded the jurisdiction and strengthened the powers of the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission (EEOC).
b.
allowed employees of state and local governments to file employment discrimination suits with the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
c.
made the provisions of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, including Title VII, applicable to state and local
governments.
d.
all of these choices.
29. Strategies employed by successful female police officers to address workplace discrimination and
harassment include avoiding negativity, defining themselves according to their own views, and
____________________.
a.
blending in
b.
ignoring discriminating behavior
c.
taking formal action
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d.
being task oriented
30. What was the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Ricci v. DeStefano?
a.
The city’s decision to invalidate the promotion test violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
b.
The city did not violate any constitutional protections.
c.
The city approved an invalid test due to disparate impact, so the court reversed the decision of the
district court.
d.
The city was in violation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 for discriminating
against African American employees who took the promotion exam.
31. Kristen Leger found that there has been a growing acceptance by the public for ____________________ in
the law enforcement role.
a.
women
b.
Hispanics
c.
African Americans
d.
gay people
32. One of the most controversial methods of ending job discrimination is
a.
reverse employment.
b.
affirmative action.
c.
de facto hiring.
d.
equal employment opportunity.
33. Title ____________________ of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was designed to prohibit all job
discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
a.
I
b.
III
c.
IV
d.
VII
34. ____________________ agencies tend to lead the way with the employment of Asian Americans in law
enforcement.
a.
Texas
b.
California
c.
New York
d.
Arizona
35. The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders stated that police departments
a.
examine the effects of reverse discrimination.
b.
examine their promotional policies.
c.
increase the visibility of women in their departments.
d.
set quotas for hiring minorities.
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36. A study conducted by James David in Texas and Oklahoma revealed that arrest rates for men and women
police officers are
a.
almost identical.
b.
slightly higher for men.
c.
significantly higher for women.
d.
slightly higher for women.
37. Which of the following terms refers to the simultaneous expectation by white officers that African American
officers will give members of their own race better treatment and hostility from members of the African
American community who consider black officers to be traitors to their race?
a.
Double marginality
b.
De facto discrimination
c.
Adverse impact
d.
Reverse discrimination
38. The concept that employers must take active steps to ensure equal employment opportunity and to redress
past discrimination is called
a.
reverse discrimination.
b.
adverse impact.
c.
affirmative action.
d.
de facto opportunity.
39. The academic studies of women on patrol indicate that women
a.
can perform patrol duties as well as men can.
b.
perform in a less satisfactory manner than men on patrol.
c.
perform as well as men on patrol but only when teamed with a male partner.
d.
usually do not want to work patrol.
40. According to a BJS report, in 2013, ____________________ percent of full-time local law enforcement
officers were African Americans.
a.
27
b.
22.7
c.
12.2
d.
l.8
41. The first African American police officers were appointed in which of the following cities?
a.
Chicago
b.
New York
c.
New Orleans
d.
Miami
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42. In 1910, which of the following cities appointed the first “officially designated” policewoman?
a.
Los Angeles
b.
Seattle
c.
New York
d.
Cleveland
43. A substantially different rate of selection resulting from hiring, promotion, and other employment decisions
that work to the disadvantage of members of a particular race, gender, or ethnic group is called
a.
reverse discrimination.
b.
reverse impact.
c.
cultural discrimination.
d.
adverse impact.
44. The 1971 Supreme Court case that established the concept that hiring requirements must be job related was
a.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.
b.
Brown v. Mississippi.
c.
Griggs v. Duke Power Company.
d.
United States v. Paradise.
45. In the early 1900s, policewomen were often called ____________________ and were employed to bring
order and assistance to the lives of women and children.
a.
city mothers
b.
mother McCredies
c.
matrons
d.
mother superiors
46. The Supreme Court case that eliminated participation in criminal activity as a reason not to hire gays or to
discriminate against them was
a.
Bowers v. Hardwick.
b.
Lawrence v. Texas.
c.
Vanguard Justice Society v. Hughes.
d.
Mieth v. Dothard.
47. The Indianapolis Police Department assigned ____________________ and ____________________ to
patrol in 1968. They were the first females to be armed, wear a uniform, and drive a marked car on an equal
basis with men.
a.
Lari Rollings; Jenny White
b.
Melissa Idol; Cynthia Lockhart
c.
Susan Smith; Jamie Wilson
d.
Betty Blankenship; Elizabeth Coffal
48. An agreement between parties in a court action before, and instead of, a decision by a judge is called a
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a.
consent agreement.
b.
consent decree.
c.
lawsuit.
d.
modus operandi.
49. Which of the following was not one of the duties relegated to early female police officers?
a.
Issuing parking tickets
b.
Guarding female prisoners
c.
Performing routine clerical tasks
d.
Patrolling
50. According to the text, which of the following is not an example of discrimination against African American
police officers in the early 1900s?
a.
Only assigned to patrol black neighborhoods
b.
Were not allowed to arrest whites
c.
Establishment of job-related standards
d.
Chances of promotion to higher ranks were limited
Enter the appropriate word(s) to complete the statement.
51. __________ means that employers must take active steps to ensure equal employment opportunity and to redress past
discrimination.
52. In the early days of female policing, women were normally used in only three actual police-related jobs. They were
__________, __________, and __________.
53. Female police officers tend to use their brains and _____________ to deescalate potentially violent situations.
54. The __________ extended the 1964 Civil Rights Act and made its provisions applicable to state and local
governments.
55. The _______________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution governs employment equality in U.S. society.
56. Previous forms of physical ability testing for police jobs generally have been replaced by __________ tests.
57. _____ is the unequal treatment of persons in personnel decisions (hiring, promotion, and firing) on the basis of their
race, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation.
58. __________ is the indirect result of policies or practices that are not intended to discriminate but do, in fact,
discriminate.
59. The __________ was enacted with the goal of assisting local governments in reducing the incidence of crime by
increasing the effectiveness, fairness, and coordination of law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
60. The job analysis must include the __________, __________, and abilities needed to perform the tasks of the job for
which they are being tested.
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61. A majority of ________ officers feel immigration issues should be handled by federal authorities.
62. __________________ is the simultaneous expectation by white officers that African American officers will give
members of their own race better treatment and hostility that African American officers receive from the African
American community because they are perceived as traitors to their race.
63. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited all job discrimination based on __________, __________, __________,
__________, or __________
64. In __________, the court ruled that the Baltimore Police Department’s height requirement of 5 feet 7 inches was a
prima facie case of sex discrimination.
65. The first important job discrimination case was __________.
66. If the majority of females fail a test while the vast majority of males pass it, that exam can be said to have a(n)
__________ on females.
67. One of the most disturbing concepts behind the affirmative action movement, and possibly the most disturbing
concept to many, is the establishment of __________.
68. How have affirmative action policies affected white males in hiring and promotional policies?
69. Discuss the concept of double marginality and how it affects Hispanic police officers.
70. How have reverse discrimination court cases influenced affirmative action programs?
71. Explain the importance of women and other minorities being promoted to high-ranking positions in U.S. police
departments and the impact they can have in those positions.
72. What challenges do police departments face in recruiting women and minorities, and what they are doing to address
those challenges?
73. Discuss differences and similarities in how male and female officers respond to domestic violence calls.
74. Describe the role the federal government played in removing equal employment opportunity barriers to women and
minorities in policing.
75. How effective are women as patrol officers as compared to their male counterparts?
76. Is the response of police departments to claims of discrimination by Muslim police officers appropriate? Why or why
not?
77. Describe how the role of female police officers has evolved from 1910 to the present.
78. Discuss the similarities and differences between how female and male police officers react to violent confrontations.
79. Detail the case of Griggs v. Duke Power Company and explain the impact that this case has had on police hiring.
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76. Student responses will vary.
77. Student responses will vary.
78. Student responses will vary.
79. Student responses will vary.

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