Chapter 9 Which of the following components is essential for a 

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Authors
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
78
Circulatory Systems
A. Multiple Choice
Key/
Page
No.
385
a. fluid
b. pump-organ
c. vessels
d. cells
e. all of these
387
a. the packed hemocytes found in hemolymph.
b. the packed red blood cells only.
c. the packed white blood cells only.
d. the total packed cell volume of blood.
e. the total volume of oxygen carried in the blood.
387
a. 8- 10
b. 6 - 8
c. 4 - 6
d. 1 - 4
387
a. Na+
b. Cl-
c. K+
d. HCO3-
e. Ca2+
389
a. -globulins.
b. -globulins.
c. -globulins.
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389
a. chylomicrons
b. high density lipoproteins
c. low density lipoproteins
d. very low density lipoproteins
e. All of these contain cholesterol.
389
a. chylomicrons
b. high density-lipoproteins
c. low-density lipoproteins
d. high-density and low-density lipoproteins
e. chylomicrons, high-density and low-density lipoproteins
392
a. containing carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the interconversion of CO2 and
bicarbonate.
b. containing hemoglobin, which binds CO2 to the iron portion.
c. containing hemoglobin, which binds CO2 to the protein portion.
d. both containing carbonic anhydrase and binding CO2 to the iron portion.
e. both containing carbonic anhydrase and binding CO2 to the protein portion.
392
are derived from _____ residing in the _____.
a. spleen; pluripotent stem cells; red marrow
b. spleen; embryonic stem cells; red marrow
c. red marrow; pluripotent stem cells; spleen
d. red marrow; embryonic stem cells; spleen
e. liver; pluripotent stem cells; red marrow
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a. renin
b. angiotensin
c. erythropoietin
d. aldosterone
e. thrombopoietin.
394
a. Hemostasis
b. Homeostasis
c. Homeopathy
d. Homeotics
e. None of these.
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395
a. slowing blood flow through the vessels as a consequence of constriction.
b. pressing together the surfaces of the vessel, promoting adhesion and sealing off
the damaged vessel.
c. slowing blood flow as a result of sympathetic stimulation.
d. Only two of these.
e. All of these.
395
a. causing the vascular musculature to remain contracted longer during the vascular
spasm.
b. causing the surface of nearby endothelial cells to become sticky so that platelets
will stick to them, enhancing aggregation of platelets.
c. causing the surface of nearby platelets to become sticky so that platelets will stick
to them, enhancing aggregation of platelets.
d. increasing the release of fibrinogen by activated platelets.
e. all of these.
395
a. factor XIII.
b. prothrombin.
c. thrombin.
d. factor X.
e. platelet factor 3 (PF3).
398
a. plasmin.
b. thrombin.
c. fibrinogen.
d. factor XII.
e. factor X.
400
because during activity blood is pumped by a _____ type pump.
a. flagella
b. extrinsic
c. peristaltic muscle
d. chamber muscle
e. none of these.
402
circulation by the _____.
a. right atrium; left ventricle
b. sinus venosus; conus arteriosus
c. sinus arteriosus; conus venosus
d. sinus venosus; bulbus arteriosus
e. sinus arteriosus; bulbus venosus
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402
a. the ancestors of whales returned to the oceans.
b. flight evolved in birds.
c. reptiles moved onto land.
d. air-breathing fish evolved.
e. amphibians transitioned to life on land and in water.
403
a. is the development of tissue edema in cattle that have acclimatized to high
altitude and then been shifted to low altitude.
b. is a disease occurring in race horses resulting in insufficient blood flow to support
running.
c. occurs when the right atrium over fills as a result of circulatory edema .
d. none of these.
403
a. carry deoxygenated blood.
b. connect multiple capillary beds.
c. function in returning blood to the heart.
d. carry oxygenated blood.
e. function in carrying blood away from the heart.
403
a. The left side of the heart is stronger than the right side.
b. The right side of the heart is stronger than the left side.
c. The left side of the heart pumps a greater volume of blood than the right side.
d. The right side of the heart pumps a greater volume of blood than the left side.
e. None of these.
386
a. Cnidarians circulate fluid in the coelenteron.
b. The differences between an open and a closed circulatory system are clear-cut.
c. Many animals have an internal extracellular fluid that is separate from the
environment.
d. The fluid leaving the capillary bed of closed circulatory systems is similar to the
hemolymph of open systems.
e. Closed circulatory systems are made necessary by the large size of organisms that
have them and the large distances between nutrient sources and cells.
405
a. endocardium.
b. myocardium.
c. myometrium.
d. endometrium.
e. myoma.
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405
a. They hold cells together under high mechanical stress.
b. They are located in intercalated discs.
c. They are found in vertebrate hearts.
d. They conduct electrical impulses between cardiac cells.
e. all of these are true.
408
tissue separating the atria from the ventricles is solved by
a. having the A-V node function as a secondary pacemaker.
b. having an ectopic pacemaker.
c. coordinating electrical activity in the atria with electrical activity in the ventricles
by connecting them via the vagus nerve.
d. coordinating electrical activity in the atria with electrical activity in the ventricles
by connecting them via the bundle of His.
e. coordinating electrical activity in the atria with electrical activity in the ventricles
by connecting them via the Purkinje fibers.
409
action potential of contractile cardiac muscle cells?
a. Na+ and Cl-
b. Na+ and K+
c. K+ and Cl-
d. Ca2+ and Na+
e. Ca2+ and K+
408
a. the atrioventricular node
b. the sinoatrial node
c. the Purkinje fibers
d. the node of Ranvier
e. the bundle fibers
416
a. an increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity.
b. an increase in K+ flux through voltage-gated K+ channels.
c. an increase in the passive movement of Na+ into cells of the SA node.
d. an increase in the passive movement of K+ out of cells of the SA node.
e. a combined increase in passive movement of Na+ and K+ out of the cells of the SA
node.
410
a. the contraction of the atria.
b. the contraction of the ventricles.
c. the depolarization of the ventricles.
d. the depolarization of the atria.
e. the repolarization of the ventricles.
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430
a. the amount of atrial tissue is too little for the current to be detected by the ECG
electrodes.
b. the time period between atrial depolarization and repolarization occurs too
rapidly.
c. atrial repolarization and ventricular depolarization are simultaneous, and the
expected wave is masked by the QRS complex.
d. None of these.
414
a. higher pressure in the atria relative to the ventricles.
b. higher pressure in the ventricles relative to the atria.
c. higher pressure in the arteries (pulmonary and aorta) relative to the ventricles.
d. higher pressure in the venae cavae relative to the atria.
e. contraction of the small muscles which attach to the valves.
412
a. isometric contraction and ventricular ejection.
b. isovolumetric contraction and ventricular ejection.
c. isometric contraction and end-systolic volume.
d. isovolumetric contraction and end-systolic volume.
e. none of these
385
a. the amount of blood pumped into the ventricles from the atria.
b. the amount of blood ejected by each ventricle during a single contraction.
c. the difference between the end diastolic volume and the end systolic volume for
each ventricle.
d. the amount of blood delivered by the vena cavae and ejected by the ventricles..
414
a. Cardiac output is the mathematical product of heart rate and stroke volume.
b. Cardiac output is the mathematical sum of heart rate and stroke volume.
c. Cardiac output is regulated exclusively by adjusting heart rate.
d. Cardiac output is regulated exclusively by adjusting stroke volume.
e. None of these.
415
heart?
a. It increases the rate of depolarization of the SA node.
b. It increases excitability of the AV node.
c. It results in stronger ventricular contractions.
d. It increases venous return.
e. None of these.
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425
a. increases venous return to the heart.
b. has an impact on the ventricular conduction pathway.
c. increases the number of cross-bridges that can form during contraction.
d. increases the strength of contraction.
e. none of these.
417
related to the _____ control of stroke volume.
a. endocrine
b. nervous
c. extrinsic
d. intrinsic
e. sympathetic
434
vessel diameter?
a. decreased O2
b. increased K+
c. increased O2
d. increased acid
e. all of these.
447
a. the cardiac suction effect.
b. the respiratory pump.
c. the skeletal muscle pump.
d. none of these.
e. all of these.
453
a. venous return
b. mean arterial blood pressure
c. peripheral resistance
d. blood flow to brain
e. none of these.
B. True or False
429
431
433 resistance in the arterioles.
85
435 changes that require greater delivery of oxygen.
435
443 extracellular fluids.
452
393 organisms.
395
399
C. Matching (correct answers are aligned with each number; e.g., #1 matches with letter a)
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D. Essay
Page No.
the SA node, AV node, arterial muscle, ventricular muscle, and veins.
body.
flow to skeletal muscle in particular. What are the overall effects of sympathetic
stimulation on the heart and blood delivery.
tension relationships, one could also invoke increases in cytosolic calcium resulting
from opening of stretch-activated calcium channels. What role does calcium play in
muscle contraction, and why would increasing cytosolic calcium levels increase the
amount of tension developed?
flow than the arterioles. How can these facts be reconciled, given that resistance (R) is
inversely proportional to the radius raised to the 4th power (r4)?

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