Chapter 9 Since teams should be an end in themselves, it is appropriate to

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Management 6th Edition
Authors
Chuck Williams
Chapter 9Managing Teams
TRUE/FALSE
1. A work team is a small number of people who have been assigned responsibility for pursuing a
common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes.
2. Companies are making greater use of teams because teams have been shown to increase (1) customer
satisfaction, (2) product and service quality, (3) speed and efficiency in product development, and (4)
employee job satisfaction.
3. In many industries, teams are growing in importance because they help organizations respond to
specific problems and challenges.
4. A company engaged in cross training is using individual team members to teach other members how to
do all or most of the jobs they can perform.
5. In the decision-making process, teams can do a much better job than individuals in defining the
problem and generating alternative solutions.
6. The three significant disadvantages that teams and teamwork are prone to are initially high turnover,
social loafing, and legal risk.
7. Since teams should be an end in themselves, it is appropriate to use them in most situations.
8. The presence of someone with expertise in a group will often cause other group members to withhold
efforts.
9. Teams are typically required when tasks are complex, require multiple perspectives, or require
repeated interaction with others to complete.
10. Autonomy is the degree to which workers have the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide
how and when to accomplish their jobs.
11. The autonomy continuum shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy. The correct
sequence from low team autonomy to high team autonomy is (1) traditional work groups, (2)
employee involvement groups, (3) semi-autonomous work groups, (4) self-designing teams, and (5)
self-managing teams.
12. Employee involvement teams not only provide advice and suggestions to management but also have
the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks required to produce a
product or service.
13. Self-designing teams have all the characteristics of self-managing teams, but they can also control and
change the design of the teams themselves, the tasks they do and how they do them, and who belongs
to the teams.
14. Cross-functional teams are purposefully composed of employees from different functional areas of the
organization.
15. Virtual teams are often, but not necessarily, temporary teams that are set up to accomplish a specific
task.
16. One of the disadvantages of project teams is their lack of flexibility.
17. Norms are informally agreed-upon standards that regulate team behavior. They are valuable because
they let team members know what is expected of them.
18. Team norms may be associated with either positive or negative outcomes for the company.
19. Cohesiveness refers to the extent to which members of a team are experiencing job satisfaction.
20. Cognitive conflict is strongly associated with improvements in team performance, and affective
conflict is strongly associated with decreases in team performance.
21. Sincere attempts to reach agreement on a difficult issue can quickly deteriorate from cognitive to
affective conflict.
22. As teams develop and grow, they pass through three stages of development. These three stages are 1)
perceived team, 2) felt team, and 3) manifest team.
23. Conflicts and disagreements often characterize the second stage of team development, which is called
storming.
24. Since teams that get stuck in the storming stage will be strained but productive, it is important for team
leaders to focus the team on balancing cognitive and affective conflict.
25. Once teams have made it to the performing stage, they no longer need fear a decline in performance.
26. To enhance work team effectiveness, managers should carefully set team goals and priorities and take
care when selecting, training, and compensating team members.
27. Structural accommodation means giving teams the ability to change organizational structures, policies,
and practices if it helps them meet their stretch goals.
28. A preference for teamwork (i.e., collectivism), team level, and team diversity can help companies
choose the right team members.
29. The most common type of training provided to members of work teams is training in leadership skills.
30. In general, gainsharing is most effective for self-managing and self-directing teams performing
complex tasks, while skill-based pay works best in relatively stable environments where employees
can focus on improving the productivity, cost savings, or quality of their current work system.
31. In general, skill-based pay is most effective for managing the performance of self-managing and
self-directing teams.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. According to the text, a(n) ____ is a small number of people with complementary skills who hold
themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and
improving interdependent work processes.
a.
work team
b.
venture group
c.
semi-structured team
d.
autonomous unit
e.
ad hoc team
2. A local hospital ran into a funding problem when it tried to build a new state-of-the-art pediatric unit.
The hospital management asked a group of physicians, hospital volunteers, and administrative staff to
develop and implement a plan to raise the necessary money. This group of people with complementary
skills formed a(n) ____.
a.
semi-structured team
b.
autonomous unit
c.
work team
d.
functional department
e.
venture team
3. Allen-Edmonds is keeping its shoe manufacturing business in the United States by investing in new
machinery and creating new processes. The strategy is a gamble and the outcome is uncertain. To cut
costs and improve efficiency, the company's old assembly line is being replaced by a system of
employees working in groups, with each person doing several jobs, and each trained to do the others'
tasks. Allen-Edmonds is using ____.
a.
semi-structured teams
b.
ad hoc committees
c.
work teams
d.
functional departments
e.
venture teams
4. How are organizations using teams to help increase customer satisfaction?
a.
by instituting a system of increased formalization throughout the organization
b.
by creating problem-solving teams to study ways to improve customer satisfaction and
make recommendations for improvements
c.
by creating outsourcing opportunities that improve organizational effectiveness and
efficiency by creating economies of scale
d.
by developing ideal solutions to organizational problems through the use of information
management systems (most notably expert systems)
e.
by taking direct responsibility for service quality
5. An organization engaged in ____ its work team members is training them in how to do all or most of
the jobs performed by the other team members.
a.
cross training
b.
job enlargement
c.
job specialization
d.
Venn training
e.
overlapping training
6. E-Lab (the "E" stands for experience) has project teams perform field research for its clients. These
project teams are composed of students of theology, actors, and musicians as well as the more
traditional marketing experts and statisticians. Each member of the group is trained to conduct
observational research, interview clients, and understand the marketing impact of what they learn.
E-Lab uses ____ to make its project teams more efficient.
a.
synergistic goals
b.
stretch goals
c.
cross training
d.
vestibule training
e.
OJT training
7. Allen-Edmonds is keeping its shoe manufacturing business in the United States by investing in new
machinery and creating new processes. The strategy is a gamble and the outcome is uncertain. To cut
costs and improve efficiency, the company's old assembly line is being replaced by a system of
employees working in groups, with each person doing several jobs, and each trained to do the others'
tasks. Allen-Edmonds' teams are using ____.
a.
cross training
b.
job enlargement
c.
job specialization
d.
Venn training
e.
overlapping training
8. Which of the following is a reason teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work?
a.
Teamwork often allows teams to receive proprietary business information that is only
available to managers.
b.
Teamwork provides team members with unique work opportunities.
c.
Teamwork gives workers a chance to improve their skills.
d.
Teamwork gives workers unique leadership responsibilities which enable them to build
individual leadership skills.
e.
All of these are reasons why teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work.
9. When teams are used properly and in the right settings, work teams can ____.
a.
help organizations respond to specific problems and challenges
b.
dramatically improve company performance
c.
instill a sense of vitality in the workplace that is otherwise difficult to achieve
d.
increase customer satisfaction and service quality
e.
do all of these
10. ____ occurs when workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work.
a.
Self-limiting behavior
b.
Social loafing
c.
De-forming
d.
Stonewalling
e.
Mental atrophy
11. Which of the following statements describe an advantage teams have over individuals in the
decision-making process?
a.
Teams can identify problems more efficiently and more quickly.
b.
Teams are able to view problems from multiple perspectives.
c.
Teams generate more commitment to making the decisions work.
d.
Teams generate more alternative solutions.
e.
All of these describe advantages teams have over individuals in the decision-making
process.
12. Which of the following is a potential disadvantage associated with the use of work teams?
a.
commitment to finding an ideal solution that does not exist
b.
initially high employee turnover
c.
lack of creativity in decision making
d.
decreased employee satisfaction
e.
all of these
13. ____ is one of the disadvantages associated with the use of work teams.
a.
Storming behavior
b.
Social loafing
c.
Group negation
d.
Outsourcing
e.
Stonewalling
14. Which of the following statements about social loafing is true?
a.
Social loafing only occurs in organizational settings.
b.
The consequences of social loafing include a loss of efficiency.
c.
Social loafing creates an accommodative decision-making climate.
d.
Social loafing preempts the usefulness of brainstorming.
e.
Social loafing cannot occur if there is a group leader.
15. Teams are typically required when ____.
a.
tasks are simple
b.
tasks require multiple perspectives
c.
synergy will complicate the problem solution process
d.
the company has very limited resources
e.
any of these conditions are met
16. Which of the following statements describes a circumstance under which teams ought to be used?
a.
Rewards are provided for individual effort and performance.
b.
Ample resources are available.
c.
Management will continue to monitor and influence how work gets done.
d.
The job can be done by people working independently.
e.
All of these describe circumstances under which teams ought to be used.
17. Team rewards that depend on ____ are the key to rewarding team behaviors and efforts.
a.
team performance rather than individual performance
b.
individual efforts rather than team performance
c.
someone taking the role of group leader
d.
the elimination of social loafing
e.
the use of groupthink
18. The least amount of team autonomy is found in ____.
a.
traditional work groups
b.
employee involvement teams
c.
semi-autonomous work groups
d.
self-managing teams
e.
ad hoc committees
19. The highest level of team autonomy is found in ____.
a.
self-managing teams
b.
self-designing teams
c.
semi-autonomous work groups
d.
employee involvement teams
e.
reciprocal work teams
20. Teams can be broadly classified as either ____.
a.
functional or departmental
b.
local or national
c.
line or staff
d.
centralized or decentralized
e.
functional or cross-functional
21. In the autonomy continuum (which shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy), the
correct sequence, from low team autonomy to high team autonomy, is ____.
a.
employee involvement teams, traditional work groups, semi-autonomous work groups,
self-managing teams, and self-designing teams
b.
traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, self-managing teams,
semi-autonomous work groups, and self-designing teams
c.
traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, self-designing teams, and
self-managing teams
d.
traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, semi-autonomous work groups,
self-managing teams, and self-designing teams
e.
employer-mandated teams, traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, project
teams, and self-managing teams
22. As a member of a typical traditional work group, Joshua should expect to be responsible for ____.
a.
doing what he is told to do
b.
giving advice and making suggestions to management
c.
making decisions and solving problems regarding major production/service tasks
d.
cross training employees who are not part of his work team
e.
creating ideas through processes like brainstorming
23. Which of the following is the only type of responsibility given to traditional work groups?
a.
execute the task
b.
give advice/make suggestions
c.
make decisions and solve problems
d.
manage and control all major production tasks
e.
receive and process organizational information
24. ____ do NOT have the authority to make decisions.
a.
Self-designing teams
b.
Employee involvement teams
c.
Semi-autonomous work groups
d.
Self-managing teams
e.
Sequential teams
25. Boeing's operation in Macon, Georgia was named one of the ten best manufacturing plants in North
America by IndustryWeek magazine. The company maintains an employee involvement team to track
the plant's goals and performance metrics. This team ____.
a.
determines who belongs to the team
b.
provides advice to management concerning areas that needed change or improvements
c.
has the authority to solve problems related to marketing and manufacturing issues
d.
controls all of the major production tasks at Boeing
e.
does none of these
26. Many orthopedic parts are almost identical in size and shape. Stryker Howmedica Osteonics in New
Jersey used a semi-autonomous work group to develop Product Recognition Technology that makes
sure parts are identified correctly and orders are filled correctly. This group ____.
a.
provided advice to the company's functional departments
b.
controlled all of the major production tasks for manufacturing orthopedic parts
c.
controlled the design and membership of the team
d.
had the authority to solve problems related to the correct identification of orthopedic parts
e.
did all of these
27. The kind of team known as a(n) ____ not only provides advice and suggestions to management but
also has limited authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks required to
produce a product or service.
a.
traditional work group
b.
employer-monitored group
c.
semi-autonomous work group
d.
self-managing team
e.
employee involvement team
28. Which of the following statements about semi-autonomous work groups is true?
a.
Semi-autonomous work groups are not typically cross-trained.
b.
Semi-autonomous work groups have low team autonomy.
c.
Semi-autonomous work groups can control and change the design of the team.
d.
Semi-autonomous work groups have the authority to make decisions and solve problems
related to the major tasks of producing a good or service.
e.
Semi-autonomous work groups are accurately described by none of these.
29. Which of the following types of teams has the authority to change their composition as well as all of
their tasks and work methods?
a.
self-designing teams
b.
sequentially interdependent teams
c.
semi-autonomous work groups
d.
self-managing teams
e.
self-autonomous teams
30. The ____ is purposefully composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization.
a.
cross-functional team
b.
ad hoc team
c.
semi-autonomous team
d.
self-managing team
e.
horizontally organized team
31. A(n) ____ is defined as a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed
coworkers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational
task.
a.
cross-functional team
b.
project team
c.
virtual team
d.
international group
e.
self-managing team
32. The job of the concepts managers at Starbucks is to use a cross-functional team to develop four to six
new beverages annually. Starbucks uses a cross-functional team because it ____.
a.
allows the company to use employees from various departments with varying perspectives
to attack the task
b.
creates a means for outsourcing new-product development
c.
allows Starbucks to use an aggregated product plan
d.
ensures that Starbucks will always have products in each stage of the product life cycle
e.
allows the company to get input from all of its external stakeholders
33. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the construction of tunnels is one of the greatest
challenges encountered during road construction. The technique of tunneling has not kept pace with
the development of other technical fields. The USDOT has created a national team of tunnel experts to
develop road tunnel engineering principles and maintenance practices in the United States through the
use of telecommunications and information technology. This group of tunnel experts will comprise
a(n) ____.
a.
self-directed team
b.
normative team
c.
virtual team
d.
multifunctional team
e.
ad hoc team
34. A leading coatings and paints manufacturer established a team that resulted in a significant increase in
plant availability and a decrease in plant downtime. Previously, the plant had lost considerable time
daily because the assembly line had to be cleaned whenever the production schedule called for a
different color, etc. to be produced. This team, which was composed of employees from several
different departments, exemplifies a(n) ____.
a.
multifunctional team
b.
normative team
c.
virtual team
d.
cross-functional team
e.
ad hoc team
35. Virtual teams ____.
a.
are also called illusionary focus groups
b.
are very flexible
c.
require all communication among group members to be sent through a senior manager
who acts as a filter
d.
are always self-managing teams
e.
regularly meet face-to-face in informal group meetings
36. A group in Great Britain has been established to improve the employment, retention, and promotion
prospects of blacks and other ethnic minorities as well as women in the Fire and Rescue Service,
which at present has a largely white, male demographic. This ____ team has two years to gather
information and create a plan.
a.
self-designing
b.
project
c.
virtual
d.
cross-functional
e.
ad hoc
37. Many orthopedic parts are almost identical in size and shape. Stryker Howmedica Osteonics in New
Jersey used a semi-autonomous work group to develop Product Recognition Technology that makes
sure parts are identified correctly and orders are filled correctly. This group would be classified as a(n)
____.
a.
ad hoc committee
b.
virtual team
c.
multifunctional team
d.
project team
e.
product-oriented team
38. Which of the following is a useful guideline for successful management of virtual teams?
a.
Pick group members with diverse backgrounds and personalities.
b.
Keep team interaction upbeat and action-oriented.
c.
Avoid asking the team members for their assessment of the team.
d.
Limit feedback.
e.
Establish nonspecific stretch goals to test the creativity of the team.
39. The ____ is created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks within a limited time.
a.
cross-functional team
b.
project team
c.
virtual team
d.
self-managing team
e.
standing committee
40. The major drawback to the use of virtual teams is ____.
a.
members must learn to express themselves in new contexts
b.
inflexibility
c.
the absence of autonomy
d.
too much autonomy
e.
the establishment of group norms
41. Which of the following kinds of team is always temporary?
a.
cross-functional team
b.
project team
c.
standing committee
d.
self-managing team
e.
virtual team
42. The group of medical specialists that work in the neonatal unit of a large teaching hospital has
assumed that one of the ____ they should follow is to explain to students the “whys” of specific
procedures as they are performed. There is no hospital rule mandating that the students be told an
explanation.
a.
heuristics
b.
norms
c.
behavioral policies
d.
codes of ethics
e.
operational guides
43. A group of workers in a medical examiner's office decided that they would not wear blue jeans to work
because such casual wear seemed unprofessional. This informal agreement was made even though the
office did not have a dress code. The workers created a(n) ____.
a.
heuristic
b.
norm
c.
behavioral policy
d.
code of ethics
e.
operational guide
44. Which of the following is an advantage associated with the use of project teams?
a.
flexibility
b.
reduction or elimination of communication barriers
c.
increased cooperation among separate departments
d.
faster design process
e.
all of these
45. ____ are informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior.
a.
Heuristics
b.
Norms
c.
Behavioral policies
d.
Codes of ethics
e.
Operational guides
46. E-Lab (the "E" stands for experience) has project teams perform field research for its clients. Project
teams at E-Lab have designed a new over-the-counter cold medicine by studying the process of how
people get sick; they have helped create a new station wagon for a major carmaker; and they have
helped backpack maker JanSport design a completely new way of displaying its products in sporting
goods stores. You can expect E-Lab’s project teams to be ____.
a.
composed of employees from different functional areas
b.
created to complete specific, one-time projects in a limited time
c.
led by a project manager
d.
flexible in their ability to move to another project
e.
all of these
47. Team norms in an organization can create ____.
a.
stronger organizational commitment
b.
more trust in management
c.
negative behaviors, such as breaking rules
d.
increased job satisfaction
e.
all of these
48. ____ is the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain with it.
a.
Accommodation
b.
Synergy
c.
Autonomy
d.
Cohesiveness
e.
Empathy
49. Which of the following team sizes usually provides the best performance?
a.
2 to 3
b.
6 to 9
c.
15 to 20
d.
more than 20
e.
All sizes tend to perform equally well.
50. Which of the following signs would indicate that a team is too small?
a.
The team is experiencing minority domination.
b.
The team has too much diversity.
c.
The team finds it difficult to come up with ideas or generate solutions to problems.
d.
The team has no sense of responsibility.
e.
The team is too cohesive.
51. Which of the following statements regarding cohesiveness is true?
a.
Cohesive groups have lower turnover.
b.
Cohesive groups engage in less cooperative behavior.
c.
Cohesive groups are always better-performing groups.
d.
Cohesive groups have trouble retaining their members.
e.
High group cohesiveness equates to low team motivation.
52. ____ undermines team effectiveness by preventing teams from engaging in the kinds of activities that
are critical to team effectiveness.
a.
Low cohesiveness
b.
Cognitive conflict
c.
Affective conflict
d.
Development of team norms
e.
Behavioral conflict
53. A leading coatings and paints manufacturer established a team made up of members from various
departments to increase plant availability and decrease plant downtime. The plant loses considerable
time daily because the assembly line has to be cleaned whenever the production schedule calls for a
different color or type of paint to be produced. This cross-functional team needs to avoid ____ conflict
if it hopes to be successful.
a.
c-type
b.
affective
c.
behavioral
d.
cognitive
e.
b-type
54. Affective conflict ____.
a.
is strongly associated with improvements in team performance
b.
can make people more comfortable with their relationships with group peers
c.
typically decreases team cohesiveness
d.
usually precedes cognitive conflict
e.
is accurately described by all of these
55. How would you respond to the following statement? "Group conflict is always bad."
a.
Affective conflict is strongly associated with improvements in team performance.
b.
Both a-conflict and c-conflict are harmful, but b-conflict is not.
c.
All cognitive conflict is bad, but all affective conflict is beneficial to the group.
d.
Cognitive conflict is strongly associated with improvements in team performance.
e.
The statement is correct.
56. Which of the following types of conflict is most strongly associated with improvements in team
performance?
a.
cognitive conflict
b.
horizontal conflict
c.
behavioral conflict
d.
vertical conflict
e.
affective conflict
57. Minority domination tends to be a particular problem in ____.
a.
groups of ten or larger
b.
cross-functional teams of any size
c.
virtual teams because of the nature of the communication medium
d.
groups of less than five
e.
project teams because they are temporary
58. Which of the following is NOT one of the recommendations for minimizing the occurrence of
affective conflict and having a good fight?
a.
Establish common goals.
b.
Work with more, rather than less, information.
c.
Maintain a balance of power.
d.
Inject humor into the workplace.
e.
Always resolve issues by consensus.
59. The manager wants to encourage cognitive conflict. According to the text, should she also push for a
team consensus?
a.
yes, because consensus leads to sacrificing solutions
b.
yes, because consensus eliminates problems associated with minority domination
c.
no, because requiring team consensus gives everyone on the team veto power
d.
yes, because requiring consensus typically leads to cognitive conflict
e.
It cannot be determined from the information provided.
60. Which of the following statements about team development is true?
a.
The growth stages are forming, norming, and performing.
b.
Group cohesion is relatively strong at the informing stage.
c.
Team performance begins to decline at the de-norming stage.

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