Chapter 7 3 Unstable Conditions Are Produced When The Environmental

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
7.2 True/False Questions
1) The technique of allowing water to freeze has been used to quarry rocks.
2) The fact that water expands as it freezes allows it to break pipes and damage roads.
3) The bulk of the evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents.
4) As water cools from room temperature, it contracts in volume and reaches its greatest density
at 4°C (39°F).
5) Below a temperature of 4°C (39°F), water expands as it continues to cool.
6) The dominant cooling process on Earth results from condensation.
7) The phase changes of water provide a significant amount of the energy that powers the general
circulation of the atmosphere.
8) Less than 0.03 percent of Earth's water is stored in the atmosphere.
9) Hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces the properties of surface tension and
capillarity.
10) Evaporation is a cooling process.
11) Deposition is the phase change from of a solid (ice) to a gas (water vapor).
12) The phase change from liquid water to water vapor involves more energy than the phase
change from ice to water.
13) Evaporation is a warming process.
14) The water vapor content of the air is termed humidity.
15) Air is saturated when the dew-point temperature and the air temperature coincide.
16) There is an inverse relationship between temperature and relative humidity, e.g. on a typical
day, relatively humidity is highest when the temperatures are the lowest.
17) Relative humidity is the mass of water vapor per mass of air.
18) Relative humidity is not affected by changes in temperature or pressure.
19) If a parcel of air is cooled and the amount of water vapor remained constant, its relative
humidity would rise.
20) Warm air is capable of holding more water vapor than cooler air.
21) The dew-point temperature occurs when relative humidity is approximately 80-85%.
22) The lowest temperature of a typical day also corresponds with the lowest relative humidity.
23) Vapor pressure is the share of air pressure made up of water-vapor.
24) Specific humidity is the mass of water vapor (g) per mass of air (kg).
25) The higher the temperature, the lower the maximum specific humidity.
26) The sling psychrometer is an instrument for measuring relative humidity.
27) The cooling of air by emitting infrared energy to space is an example of adiabatically
cooling.
28) A stable air parcel resists upward displacement.
29) An unstable air parcel continues to rise until it reaches an altitude where the surrounding air
has a density and temperature similar to its own.
30) A parcel of air tends to heat by expansion and cool by compression as it moves vertically in
the atmosphere.
31) The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) applies to a parcel of air that is saturated.
32) The average moist adiabatic rate is 6 C°/1000 m (3.3 F°/1000 ft), but values actually vary as
a function of both temperature and moisture content.
33) The moist adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) because of the
release of the latent heat of condensation within the rising parcel of air.
34) Unstable conditions are produced when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry
adiabatic rate.
35) Conditionally unstable conditions are produced when the environmental lapse rate is less
than both the dry adiabatic rate and moist adiabatic rate.
36) An ascending parcel of air tends to cool by expansion, while a descending parcel of air tends
to heat by compression.
37) Clouds with the prefix alto- are high clouds composed mostly of ice.
38) Clouds with the prefix nimbo- and the suffix -nimbus are rain clouds.
39) Cirrus clouds are associated with thunderstorms and hard showers.
42
40) Thunderheads are cumulonimbus clouds.
41) Fog is a cloud layer on the ground restricting visibility to less than 1 km (3,300 ft).
42) Fog over both the land and sea can create potential dangerous situations.
43) Fog can be harvested as a water resource.
44) Clouds are unimportant to climate change.
45) Atmospheric water vapor is both a greenhouse gas and affects human comfort level.
7.3 Essay Questions
43
1) List several of water's unique properties.
2) Describe water's phase changes and the latent energy associated with each.
3) Define and distinguish between relative humidity and specific humidity.
4) What is atmospheric stability? What are adiabatic processes and how they are related to
atmospheric stability?
5) Compare and contrast the normal lapse rate, environmental lapse rate, the dry adiabatic rate,
and the moist adiabatic rate.
6) List and describe the cloud classes and their associated cloud types, along with a discussion of
the type of weather associated with each.
7) Describe the formative characteristics of advection fogs, valley fog, evaporation fog, and
radiation fog along with their usual locations.
8) Discuss how humans are affected by atmospheric water vapor and how humans can affect
atmospheric water vapor.

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