Chapter 6 The Term Optic Radiations Refers Visual Tracts

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
Sensory Physiology
A. Multiple Choice
a. a stimulus interacting with peripheral membrane proteins.
b. ion channels present in the membrane.
c. the establishment of a transmembrane potential.
d. ions moving up their concentration gradient.
e. none of these.
first. This group of channels are
a. mechanically gated.
b. ion gated.
c. voltage-gated.
d. ligand-gated.
e. receptor-activated.
a. is involved in converting stimulus energy into action potentials.
b. is specialized to respond to a particular sensory modality.
c. can often be found in a sense organ grouped with other cells responsive to the
same adequate stimulus.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
a. Pacinian corpuscle
b. Herbst corpuscle
c. Avian corpuscle
d. tactile disc
e. none of these.
following is NOT a type of receptor?
a. photoreceptor
b. intelreceptor
c. mechanoreceptor
d. chemoreceptor
e. thermoreceptor
a. action potential amplitude.
b. frequency of action potentials.
c. number of receptors activated.
d. Both action potential and amplitude and frequency.
e. Both action potential frequency and number of receptors stimulated.
a. the ability of receptors to become less responsive to a stimulus of a given
b. a phenomenon through which a receptor specialized for one sensory modality
evolves to respond to another sensory modality.
c. the ability of receptors to become more sensitive to a stimulus as a consequence of
repeated exposure.
d. none of these.
a. quickly adapts to a stimulus.
b. has an off response.
c. ignores continuous information.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
a. Light detection is synonymous with vision.
b. Light detection is always initiated in a rod or cone photoreceptor, though these
need not be located in an eye.
c. Even in its most primitive form, light detection evolved in structures dedicated to
this purpose.
d. Light detection evolved numerous times in a variety of structures.
e. None of these.
a. Eyespots contain photoreceptor cells.
b. Eyespots are found in planarians and cnidarians.
c. Eyespots contain pigments that assure only light coming from a particular
direction is absorbed.
d. Eyespots form an image perceived by the animal's ganglion.
e. Eyespots have a large visual field to which they respond.
a. sclera.
b. eyelid.
c. eye socket.
d. choroid.
e. cornea.
a. The Amoeba is capable of responding to light.
b. The surface of rhabdomeric photoreceptors consists of parallel microvilli.
c. Due to the size of their visual field, pinhole eyes do not form images.
d. Recognition of predator-prey movement requires a visual system that permits the
formation of an image.
e. Butterflies sense light with their genitalia.
consequence of ________ stimulation.
a. circular; sympathetic
b. circular ; parasympathetic
c. radial; sympathetic
d. radial; parasympathetic
e. suspensory; somatic motor
due to ultraviolet radiation?
a. pigmented cornea
b. pigmented lens
c. pigmented oil droplets in the photoreceptor inner segments
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
a. decreased pupil size.
b. increased pupil size.
c. increased curvature of the lens.
d. decreased curvature of the lens.
e. squinting.
a. is the processes focusing the visual image on the retina.
b. occurs in fish by moving the lens either forward or backward.
c. can be accomplished by changing the fluid volume in the optic chamber .
d. only two of these.
e. all three of these.
a. rod and cone photoreceptors
b. bipolar cells
c. retinal pigment epithelium
d. ganglion cells
e. All of these are components of the neural retina.
vessels enter the eye.
a. fovea
b. optic disc
c. macula lutea
d. corpus luteum
e. pupil
initiated is the
a. outer segment.
b. inner segment.
c. synaptic terminal.
d. nucleus.
e. Golgi stacks.
phototransduction in vertebrates is
a. cGMP.
b. cCMP.
c. cAMP.
d. cTMP.
e. 5'-GMP.
a. activates adenylyl cyclase resulting in the formation of cAMP.
b. activated calcium-activated channels leading to depolarization of the receptor
c. activates the messenger pathway leading to an increase in cGMP.
d. is found in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells.
e. is a G-protein.
second and third order cells, respectively.
a. photoreceptors; bipolar cells; ganglion cells
b. photoreceptors; ganglion cells; bipolar cells
c. bipolar cells; ganglion cells; photoreceptors
d. bipolar cells; photoreceptors; ganglion cells
e. ganglion cells; bipolar cells; photoreceptors
relative to the rods?
a. Different cone opsins have different absorbance maxima for wavelengths of light.
b. There is little convergence in the cone system.
c. Cones are less sensitive (require a stronger stimulus) than rods.
d. All of these contribute to acuity.
e. None of these influence acuity.
a. the changes that occur in the visual pigment system when going from a dark into
a light environment.
b. the evolutionary changes that enable a species to maintain a diurnal life style.
c. the changes that occur in visual pigment system when going from a light into a
dark environment.
d. none of these.
a. night blindness and retinene
b. dark adaptation and sunlight
c. long (L) cones and the color yellow
d. primates and trichromatic vision
e. cones and high visual sensitivity
receptive field is stimulated by light.
a. increase
b. decrease
c. do not change
corresponding lateral visual field at the level of the
a. optic chiasma.
b. optic nerve.
c. optic tract.
d. corpus callosum.
e. geniculate nucleus.
a. visual tracts that cross between the cerebral hemispheres.
b. fiber tracts carrying information in the visual pathways from the lateral
geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to different zones in the cortex.
c. the evolution of diverse specialized organs for vision.
d. the radial muscles in the iris that enable dilation of the pupil.
e. the visual field associated with off-center ganglion cells.
a. inner segment
b. outer segment
c. middle segment
d. synaptic segment
e. transducing segment
a. no G-proteins are involved.
b. no cation channels are involved.
c. no opsins are involved.
d. photoreceptors depolarize in response to stimulation.
e. first-order cells hyperpolarize in response to stimulation.
a. consciousness, or state of being.
b. an organism's orientation in space.
c. surface hardness.
d. none of the above.
a. Sour taste and blocking of K+ channels
b. Salty taste and ENaC channels
c. Umami taste and amino acids
d. Sweet taste and IP3 induced release of calcium
e. none of these.
a. the ampulla and the ventricle.
b. the uvula and the spicule.
c. the utricle and the saccule.
d. cupula and ampulla.
the ________ are used to detect ________.
a. semicircular canals; angular acceleration; otolith organs; linear acceleration
b. semicircular canals; linear acceleration; otolith organs; angular acceleration
c. hair cells; linear acceleration; scale cells; angular acceleration
d. hair cells; angular acceleration; scale cells; linear acceleration
most similar to the ________ of light.
a. amplitude; brightness
b. amplitude; wavelength
c. frequency; brightness
d. frequency; wavelength
a. Taste and smell senses are highly variable in sensitivities among species.
b. The intraspecies roles of olfaction are largely mediated by pheromones.
c. Sensilla are specialized projections from the cuticle of insects and are involved in
chemical sensing
d. In humans, the cortical gustatory area is located in the temporal lobe.
e. The modality for mammalian taste receptors is called a tastant.
transmitted from the external ear to the inner ear. This occurs as a result of
a. the increase in pressure on the oval window relative to the pressure on the
tympanic membrane.
b. the increase in force applied to the oval window which is accomplished by the
lever action of the inner ear ossicles.
c. the difference in surface areas of the tympanic membrane and the membrane of
the oval window .
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
minority, it is the ____________ hair cells that are principally responsible for transducing
sound waves into what we perceive as sound sensations.
a. outer
b. inner
c. utricular
d. saccular
e. ampullar
a. high amplitude sounds are perceived optimally at the base of the narrow end of
the cochlea (toward the oval window).
b. low amplitude sounds are perceived optimally at the base of the narrow end of
the cochlea (toward the oval window).
c. high frequency sounds are perceived optimally at the base of the narrow end of
the cochlea (toward the oval window).
d. low frequency sounds are perceived optimally at the base of the narrow end of
the cochlea (toward the oval window).
potentials of the ________, and in part due to spatial (tonotopic) mapping of the ________.
a. hair cells; basilar membrane
b. hair cells; vestibular membrane
c. auditory neurons; basilar membrane
d. auditory neurons; vestibular membrane
e. auditory neurons; tympanic membrane
B. True and false
208, senses.
221 of the semicircular canals.
228 absorb high-frequency sounds.
251 for the diminished penetration of blue wavelength light into the deep sea.
258 depolarization of the photoreceptors cells, rods and cones.
259 used by pit vipers to locate their prey.
256 of the epidermis.
B. Matching (correct answers are aligned with each number; e.g., #1 matches with letter a)
C. Essay
Page No.
why whales lack blue cones. Would you expect this to reflect the condition of its common
ancestor with terrestrial mammals, or would you consider this a derived trait?
to an ingrown toenail on lateral side of your left big toe.
adaptive advantage to early humans?
withdrawal reflex to prevent further damage from the painful stimulus. What benefit do
you think might be derived from experiencing persistent dull pain through the slow pain

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