Chapter 6 3 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
107) In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents move ________ about high-pressure cells; in
the Southern Hemisphere ocean currents move ________ about high-pressure cells.
A) counterclockwise; clockwise
B) parallel; perpendicular
C) clockwise; counterclockwise
D) perpendicular.; parallel
108) The El Niño-Southern Oscillation
A) occurs every year around Christmas time in the southern Pacific Ocean.
B) is a periodic shift of high and low pressure zones over the western and eastern Pacific,
respectively, usually occurring every 2 to 12 years.
C) is a pattern of sea surface, air pressure, and wind shifts between the northern and tropical
western Pacific.
D) A north-south fluctuation of high and low pressure zones in the North Atlantic Ocean.
109) The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with the following except
A) drought in South Africa, southern India, Australia, and the Philippines.
B) flooding in the southwest United States, Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, and Peru.
C) cooler than normal ocean along the west coast of South America.
D) higher pressure than normal over the western Pacific and lower pressure over the eastern
Pacific.
110) Which of the following is associated with an ENSO event?
A) Enhanced upwelling in the Huboldt (Peru) current.
B) Increased thermocline in the eastern Pacific.
C) Cooler than normal sea surface temperatures along the western South American coast.
D) Higher pressure over the western Pacific and lower pressure over the eastern Pacific.
111) Which natural oscillation in global circulation is associated with shifts in patterns of sea
surface temperatures, air pressure, and winds between the northern and tropical western Pacific?
A) El Niño-Southern Oscillation
B) La Niña
C) Pacific Decadal Oscillation
D) North Atlantic Oscillation
112) Scientists think that melting Arctic Sea ice may have the following consequences except
A) A weakening of the jet stream.
B) Warmer conditions in the United States and Europe.
C) High pressure conditions over Greenland.
D) Larger meanders in the jet stream.
6.2 True/False Questions
1) The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 produced few atmospheric effects.
2) The global spread of low-level radioactive contamination for Japan's Fukushima power plant
in 2011 illustrates transboundary issues associated with atmospheric circulation.
3) A barometer is a device used for the measurement of air pressure.
4) An aneroid barometer measures air pressure using mercury or other liquids.
5) Normal sea level pressure has a standard value of 1013.2 mb (29.92 in.) of Hg.
6) Hurricane Wilma set a new record for low barometric pressure in the Atlantic basin.
7) Wind speed is measured with an anemometer.
8) Winds are named for the direction in which they are blowing.
9) The pressure gradient force drives air from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.
10) The Coriolis force is responsible for the direction water rotates when flowing into a drain.
11) The Coriolis force makes wind traveling in a straight path appear to be deflected in
relationship to the Earth's rotation.
12) In the Southern Hemisphere, the deflection from the Coriolis force is towards the right.
13) The Coriolis force is greatest at the equator and weakest towards the poles.
14) Friction greatest influence on the wind occurs at altitudes above 500 m.
15) Geostrophic winds flow at right angles to isobars.
16) The forces that control the wind include gravity, the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force,
and friction force.
17) A line connecting points of equal pressure on a weather map is called an isobar.
18) The pressure gradient force and the friction force together produce geostrophic winds along
Earth's surface.
19) Low pressure areas are associated with converging, ascending air.
20) The effect of surface friction extends to a height of about 500 m (1600 ft.) although it may
vary with wind speed, season, time of day, and pressure patterns.
21) An area of high pressure circulates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and is
called an anticyclone.
22) A primary low-pressure area occurs from 20° to 35° north latitude and south latitude.
23) The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifts as far north as the Persian Gulf region in
July.
24) Deserts are often associated with the ITCZ.
25) Subtropical high-pressure systems generate both the trade winds and the westerlies.
26) Subtropical high-pressure systems migrate with the summer Sun, fluctuating about 5° - 10°
in latitude.
27) A monsoon is a seasonal reversal of winds.
28) Sea breezes and land breezes are caused by the differential heating of land and water.
29) During the day, mountain valleys heat more rapidly than mountain slopes.
30) The two dynamic pressure areas are the subpolar lows and subtropical highs.
31) The doldrums are associated with the subtropical pressure belt, and the horse latitudes are
associated with the equatorial belt.
32) Hadley cells are associated with the subpolar low and the polar high.
33) The polar high is characterized by cold, dry air.
34) Sometimes the polar jet stream and the subtropical jet stream merge for brief episodes.
35) Ocean currents play a relatively small role in regulating climate.
36) Trade winds cause the piling up of water along the eastern shores of continents.
37) Surface currents are mainly driven by temperature and salinity differences.
38) Transport of marine debris (e.g. rubber toys from a damaged cargo ship) demonstrate the
movements of currents around the Pacific Gyre.
39) Temperature and salinity are important to the flow of deep ocean currents.
40) Thermohaline currents travel at greater speeds than wind-driven currents.
41) Katabatic winds typically occur in relatively flat (e.g. the Great Plains) terrain.
42) Santa Ana winds are hot and dry and often contribute to wildfire conditions.
43) Most nations have shown relatively little interest in harnessing the power of wind for energy.
44) The European Union has a goal of 20% of all energy from renewable resources by 2020.
45) Wind is a non-renewable resource shown to have adverse effects on human health.
46) Upwelling brings cool, nutrient rich water to the surface.
47) During an El Niño, upwelling of cool waters along the west coast of South America is
intensified.
51
48) Cooler than normal surface waters in the central and eastern Pacific are associated with La
Niña events.
49) During an ENSO event, a low pressure system develops over Tahiti, while a high pressure
system develops over Darwin, Australia.
50) The North Atlantic Oscillation is associated with strengthening of the pressure differences
between the Icelandic Low and Azores high.
51) Melting sea ice may weaken the jet stream and result in colder conditions in Europe and the
United States.
52) Asian air pollution has been attributed to higher monsoonal wind flow and increased rainfall.
53) Unusually strong monsoonal flow has been linked to La Niña.
6.3 Essay Questions
1) Examine the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo with a focus on its atmospheric impacts and the
dispersal of its emissions by winds.
2) Discuss how and why Torricelli developed the mercury barometer, along with an explanation
of the barometer itself and the physical processes behind its function. Also discuss how an
aneroid barometer works.
3) List and briefly describe the four forces that shape the speed and direction of winds.
4) Examine in detail the various ways in which wind speed and direction are determined by the
pressure gradient force, the Coriolis force, and friction.
5) Using an example explain the Coriolis force. Examine and explain the effect of the Coriolis
force on wind speed and direction.
6) Sketch out a general model of the Earth's circulation patterns. Include the intertropical
convergence zone, subtropical highs, subpolar lows, polar highs, the trade winds, the westerlies,
the polar easterlies, and Hadley cells.
7) Describe the four main pressure areas of the Northern Hemisphere and discuss their effects on
major wind patterns.
8) Discuss the formation of the ITCZ and the typical weather patterns found within it.
9) Describe the formation of ridges and troughs in the upper atmosphere and how they are
connected with weather patterns.
10) Discuss the formation of Rossby waves.
11) Describe the characteristics of Northern Hemisphere jet streams.
12) Explain the occurrence of land and sea breezes and mountain and valley breezes.
13) Describe and explain the formation and effects of the monsoon winds of southern Asia.
14) Describe the formation and characteristics of both surface ocean currents and deep ocean
currents.
15) Compare and contrast the economic and ecological costs of wind and fossil fuel power.
Include wind-generating capacity in the United States and Europe.
16) Describe deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Discuss the relationship between
thermohaline circulation and global climate change.

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