Chapter 5 Which Brain Area And Function Are Not

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Authors
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
39
Nervous Systems
A. Multiple Choice
Key/
Page
No.
148
system regulates ________.
a. nervous activity, endometrial activity
b. rapid responses, long lasting activities
c. nail-biting, immune responses
d. feeding behavior, digestion
148
nervous system?
a. The delay between sensory stimulus input and motor response allows an
individual to weigh the merits of its options.
b. The output neuron can receive inputs from multiple sources, including
"higher" centers like the brain.
c. The "higher" centers can suppress reflex responses.
d. The "higher" centers can alter sensitivity of the motor neuron to its other
inputs.
e. The "higher" centers can activate motor neurons in an anticipatory
fashion.
150
a. are the simplest type of nervous system.
b. are simple.
c. are found in cnidarians.
d. are not primitive.
e. All of these.
152
a. clusters of neuronal cell bodies.
b. precursors to evolution of a brain.
c. are an evolutionary step between nerve nets and true brains.
d. evolved as animal behaviors became more complex.
e. all of these.
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154
a. animals with radial symmetry.
b. animals with bilateral symmetry
c. cnidarians.
d. echinoderms.
e. all animals having symmetry.
154
a. insects
b. cephalopods
c. annelids
d. primates
e. echinoderms
155
a. Elephants have a larger number of neurons in their brain than humans
do.
b. Octopods have a larger number of neurons in their brains than humans
do.
c. The neurons in human brains are larger than the neurons in other
primates' brains.
d. The brains of leaf-eating primates are larger than the brains of fruit-eating
primates.
e. The ratio of brain size to body size is larger in baleen whales than in
dolphins.
156
a. evolution occurs in the face of cost-benefits trade-offs.
b. maintaining the membrane potential consumes much energy.
c. there is a corresponding decrease in the size of the digestive tract that
parallels the increase in brain size.
d. large brain sizes require high quality diets to support them, and high
quality diets yield nutrients easily and adequately to smaller digestive
tracts.
e. all of these.
155
a. Many birds and mammals have a similar brain to body size as sharks.
b. Nonmigratory birds tend to have larger brains than migratory birds.
c. Within primates, dolphins have the second largest brain size.
d. none of these.
e. all of these
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158
a. have their cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
b. carry information from the periphery to the central nervous system.
c. exist entirely within the central nervous system.
d. carry information from the central nervous system to the periphery.
e. exist entirely outside the central nervous system.
159
a. generally exert opposite effects on visceral organs.
b. are sensory and motor, respectively.
c. are central and peripheral, respectively.
d. are autonomic and automatic, respectively.
e. are generally excitatory and inhibitory, respectively.
161
and parasympathetic nervous systems is it
a. saves energy.
b. economizes on volume requirements since organs can constrict when
they're not being used.
c. allows precise regulation of the activity of the organs so innervated.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
162
a. acetylcholine.
b. norepinephrine.
c. acetylcholine and norepinephrine, respectively.
d. norepinephrine and acetylcholine, respectively.
e. norepinephrine and noreadrenaline, respectively.
164
ganglia, _______________ are examples of _______________.
a. nicotinic receptors; ligand-gated ion channels
b. nicotinic receptors; G-protein coupled receptors
c. muscarinic receptors; ligand-gated ion channels
d. muscarinic receptors; G-protein coupled receptors
e. adrenergic receptors; G-protein coupled receptors
165
the autonomic system are located in the
a. cerebrum.
b. hypothalamus.
c. medulla.
d. sympathetic chain ganglia.
e. spinal cord.
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167
system?
a. oligodendrocytes
b. astrocytes
c. Schwann cells
d. ependymal cells
e. microglia
169
production of cerebrospinal fluid?
a. oligodendrocytes
b. astrocytes
c. Schwann cells
d. ependymal cells
e. microglia
169
a. arachnoid mater.
b. dura mater.
c. pia mater.
169,
170
a. consists of both anatomical and physiological factors.
b. regulates to some extent the passage of substances from the blood to the
interstitial fluid of the brain.
c. is anatomically related to the formation of tight junctions between
adjacent capillary endothelial cells.
d. is induced by the astrocytes.
e. all of these.
171
experience are examples of
a. synaptic plasticity.
b. the amazing regenerating capacity of the brain.
c. mutation.
d. growth.
e. none of these.
174
a. brain stem.
b. cerebellum.
c. diencephalons.
d. cerebrum.
e. basal nuclei.
43
177
a. the part of the cerebral cortex which contains neuronal cell bodies and
glia.
b. the nerve connection between the two hemispheres of the brain.
c. part of the brain affected by Alzheimer's disease and showing signs of
senescence.
d. fiber tracts carrying information between the spinal cord and the brain.
e. none of these.
192
a. frontal
b. parietal
c. temporal
d. occipital
192
a. frontal
b. parietal
c. temporal
d. occipital
194
programs?
a. supplementary motor cortex
b. premotor cortex
c. posterior parietal cortex
d. cerebellum
e. All of these.
186,
a. inhibiting muscle tone throughout the body.
b. selecting and maintaining purposeful motor activity while suppressing
useless or unwanted patterns of movement.
c. helping monitor and coordinate slow, sustained contractions.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
177,
187
a. cerebellum: skilled voluntary activity
b. brain stem: sense of fear
c. thalamic region: crude awareness of sensation
d. cerebral cortex: personality traits
e. amygdala: emotional memories
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188
a. the control of movements involving the extremities, such as arm gestures.
b. the control of innate behaviors.
c. the response to hunger.
d. the response to fatigue.
e. none of these.
189
associated with emotional and behavioral pathways?
a. norepinephrine
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. serotonin
e. none of these.
184
a. cerebrocerebellum
b. spinocerebellum
c. vestibulocerebellum
d. thalamocerebellum
e. none of these.
183,
184
a. reflex control of the heart
b. control of cortical alertness
c. modulating one's sense of pain
d. regulating postural reflexes.
e. none of these.
158
a. The arthropod nervous system has ganglia that lie within the central
nervous system.
b. Arthropods have a solid and dorsal nerve cord
c. The nerve cord of vertebrates has a segmental branching pattern.
d. In vertebrates, interneurons are only found in the central nervous
systems..
e. In vertebrates only two neurotransmitters control the effector organ
responses regulated by efferent neuronal terminals.
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177
a. The ventral corticospinal tract of the spinal cord carries ascending
information to the brain from the stretch receptors in muscles.
b. A bundle of peripheral axons, a nerve, may contain both afferent and
efferent axons.
c. A spinal nerve is a collection of peripheral axons collected within a
connective tissue sheath and continuous with either the dorsal or ventral
root of a spinal segment.
d. The ventral horn of the spinal cord gray matter houses cell bodies of
efferent motor neurons supplying the skeletal muscles.
181
a. is associated with responding to a painful stimulus.
b. involves sensory and motor neurons on the same side of the spinal cord.
c. connects with interneurons traveling to the brain.
d. involves blocking a response by the antagonistic muscle group.
e. all of these.
182
a. activation of the afferent results only in excitatory reflex responses in the
former case, but in both excitatory and inhibitory responses in the latter
case.
b. the former is monosynaptic and the latter is polysynaptic.
c. the motor neurons associated with the former directly stimulate muscle
stretching while those associated with the latter cause muscle contraction.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
182
a. They occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
b. They are not considered to be reflexes.
c. They use command fibers located in the central nervous system.
d. They are generated in response to a specific stimulus.
e. A species of animals will carry out the behavior in the same manner.
197
____________ memory.
a. procedural
b. explicit
c. short term
d. imprinting-type
e. random access
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200
remembering exactly what happened. This lapse in memory is the primary result
of ethanol
a. initiating inhibitory cAMP pathways involved in memory storage.
b. slowing the transfer of short term memory events into long term memory
storage.
c. slowing the release of calcium in presynaptic neurons.
d. blocking binding to NMDA receptors.
e. blocking LTP pathways.
196
a. hypothalamus.
b. hypophysis.
c. amygdala.
d. hippocampus.
e. cerebellum.
197
a. hypothalamus.
b. hypophysis.
c. amygdala.
d. hippocampus.
e. cerebellum.
B. True or False
150
157 kidneys and intestinal tract.
161 innvervation of an endocrine gland affects hormone release.
True 4. All adrenergic receptors are coupled to G proteins.
164
165 postganglionic fibers and as a hormone from the adrenal medulla.
167 volume occupied by the nervous system.
171
47
192 called the precentral gyrus.
195
148
C. Matching (correct answers are aligned with each number; e.g., #1 matches with letter a)
D. Essay
Page No.
vasoconstriction. Considering that the circulatory system in vertebrates is a closed system
(i.e. normally all blood is contained in blood vessels), explain why animals can get by
with having arterioles and veins innervated by the sympathetic nervous system without
antagonistic innervation by the parasympathetic nervous system.
Include an explanation as to why you think each pair evolved different brain to body
ratios.
right-brained or left-brained, or would you expect them to be ambihemispheric? Justify
your answer.
statement on the major difference in meaning between the two.
48
differences you would notice in the pre-knockout and post-knockout conditions of the
animal.

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