a. All cells contain voltage-gated sodium channels.
b. Voltage-gated sodium channels are integral membrane proteins.
c. Voltage-gated sodium channels have roughly equal permeability to Na+ and K+.
d. Voltage-gated sodium channels open in response to any change in membrane
e. Voltage-gated sodium channels open in response to binding of acetylcholine.
a. They can be found in annelids and cockroaches.
b. They can be unicellular.
c. They are involved in the coordination of abrupt movements.
d. They were first identified and studied in squid.
e. They may arise as the result of fusion of smaller fibers.
order for neurons to perform their function?
a. Neurons have to function in reception (e.g. sensory); therefore, they must be able
to switch channels in order to get the appropriate information.
b. The lipid bilayer is impermeable to ions and polar molecules, and ion flow
through the membrane is essential for nervous transmission of information.
c. Channels permit the flow of water through the membrane, and water is necessary
for hydrolysis reactions in the cytoplasm.
d. Channels are required in order to keep Ca2+ levels low inside the cytoplasm.
symbiotic bacteria residing in them. Interestingly, the pufferfish themselves aren't
affected by this neurotoxin. The most plausible explanation for the fish's insensitivity to
a. the fish lack neurons.
b. the fish have neurons, but with very short axons that enable them to rely entirely
on electrical conduction based on local passive current flow.
c. the fish lack voltage-gated sodium channels .
d. the fish have voltage-gated sodium channels, but they have a slightly different
sequence from voltage-gated sodium channels found in other organisms, and this
difference affects TTX's ability to bind the channel.
neurotransmitter; therefore, one would expect using fluoxetine to result in ___________ in
the post-synaptic neuron.
a. action potentials of greater amplitude to be conducted
b. an increase in the conduction velocity of action potentials
c. graded potentials of lesser amplitude
d. graded potentials of shorter duration
e. graded potentials of longer duration