Chapter 2 1 Because The Sun Far Away Impossible Measure

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 9e (Christopherson)
Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons
2.1 Multiple Choice Questions
1) Which of the following is true?
A) The Sun is the largest star in the Milky Way Galaxy.
B) The Milky Way is part of our Solar System.
C) The Sun produces energy through fusion processes.
D) The Sun is also a planet.
2) The planetesimal hypothesis pertains to the formation of the
A) universe.
B) galaxy.
C) planets.
D) ocean basins.
3) ________ is a supermassive black hole sitting in the galatic center of the Milky Way.
A) Sagittarius A*
B) The Orion Spur
C) Messier 31
D) Centaurus A
4) Light travels at a speed of approximately
A) 80,500 kilometers per hour (50,000 mph).
B) 300,000 kilometers per hour (186,336 mph).
C) 300,000 kilometers per second (186,333 miles per second).
D) 1,000,000,000 kilometers per second (621,118,012 miles per second).
5) The plane of Earth's orbit about the Sun is called
A) perihelion.
B) aphelion.
C) the plane of the ecliptic.
D) a great circle.
6) Which of the following does not accurately describe Earth's distance from the Sun?
A) The Earth-Sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
B) It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the Sun to Earth.
C) Earth is closer to the Sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).
D) The Earth's orbit around the sun is presently circular and, therefore the Earth is always
equidistant from the sun throughout the year.
7) Our planet and our lives are powered by
A) energy derived from inside Earth.
B) radiant energy from the Sun.
C) utilities and oil companies.
D) shorter wavelengths of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet.
8) Which of the following is false?
A) The Sun and Solar System are part of the Milky Way Galaxy.
B) The Sun produces energy through fusion.
C) The Sun is by far the largest star in the Milky Way Galaxy.
D) The Sun is an average sized yellow star.
9) Which of the following is not true about the Milky Way galaxy in which we live?
A) It is a spiral-shaped galaxy.
B) It is one of millions of galaxies in the universe.
C) It contains approximately 300 billion stars.
D) It is the largest galaxy in the universe.
10) Earth and the Sun formed specifically from
A) the galaxy.
B) unknown origins.
C) a nebula of dust and gases.
D) other planets.
11) Which of the following is not of our solar system?
A) It consists of 8 planets and some 165 planetary satellites (moons).
B) Of all the planets, Neptune has the most moons.
C) Six of the eight planets have at least 1 moon.
D) Several identified planetary satellites are still awaiting official confirmation.
12) Which of the following is true of Earth's orbit about the Sun?
A) It is perfectly circular.
B) It is elliptical.
C) It takes approximately the same time for Earth to orbit the Sun as it does for the rest of the
planets in the solar system to orbit the Sun.
D) The orbit does not vary over millions of years.
13) According to findings from the Kepler telescope, the estimated number of planets in the
Milky Way is ________with some ________ in habitable zones.
A) 300 billion; 125 billion
B) 25 million; 3 million
C) 1 billion; 25 million
D) 50 billion; 500 million
14) The basic idea behind the planetesimal hypothesis is that
A) planets form as a direct result of the nuclear fusion of nebular gases and planetesimals.
B) planets form from the remains of super-giant planetesimals that undergo nuclear fission and
blow apart, thereby creating smaller objectsthe planets.
C) early in the solar system's history, a star passed near to the Sun and pulled off gases that
eventually condensed to form planets.
D) small grains of cosmic dust and other solids gradual accrete to form planetesimals that may
grow to become protoplanets and eventually planets.
15) The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is
A) shorter than that emitted by Earth.
B) longer than that emitted by Earth.
C) the same length as that emitted by Earth.
16) Which of the following is characterized by the longest wavelengths?
A) X-rays
B) gamma rays
C) visible
D) thermal infrared
E) radio waves
17) What is the name of the location on the surface of Earth that receives insolation when the
Sun is directly overhead? (When this occurs, the Sun's rays are perpendicular to this surface.)
A) solar point
B) zenith
C) subsolar point
D) North Polar point
18) Which of the following is true of the subsolar point?
A) The highest latitude at which it occurs is 60° N/S.
B) It only occurs at lower latitudes, between the tropics (23.5° N/S).
C) It occurs at all latitudes at least once throughout the year.
D) It never occurs beyond a few degrees of the equator.
19) The Sun produces which of the following?
A) mainly visible light and infrared energy
B) mainly ultraviolet and X-rays
C) only solar wind
D) only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
20) The Sun gives off electromagnetic radiation because
A) matter is converted into energy.
B) matter and energy totally annihilate one another in matter-antimatter reactions.
C) energy is converted into matter.
D) kinetic energy is converted into potential energy.
21) Which of the following is not true of sunspots?
A) They can be several times larger than Earth.
B) They can produce flares and prominences.
C) They are brighter than the rest of the Sun's surface.
D) They are surface disturbances caused by magnetic storms.
22) A magnetic disturbance on the Sun's surface is called
A) the electromagnetic spectrum.
B) the solar wind.
C) a sunspot.
D) a magnetospheric cyclone.
23) On its way to Earth, the solar wind first encounters
A) the atmosphere.
B) the magnetosphere.
C) Earth's surface.
D) the lower atmosphere.
24) Earth's magnetosphere is generated by
A) nuclear fusion in Earth's core.
B) nuclear fission in Earth's core.
C) dynamo-like motions in Earth's interior.
D) gravitational accretion.
25) The auroras in the upper atmosphere are caused by
A) visible light interaction with the asthenosphere.
B) AM radio broadcasts.
C) various weather phenomena.
D) the interaction of the solar wind and upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere.
26) Which of the following is not a consequence of the solar wind?
A) auroras
B) disruption of radio communications
C) overloads of electrical systems
D) creation of Earth's magnetosphere
27) Which of the following have been correlated with sunspot cycles?
A) abnormally wet years
B) droughts
C) both abnormally wet years and droughts
D) neither abnormally wet years nor droughts
28) Astronauts deployed a solar wind measuring experiment on the Moon because
A) the lunar surface is protected by an atmosphere.
B) there is no electromagnetic energy arriving there.
C) the solar wind does not reach the Earth's surface.
D) no one else had attempted the experiment before and they wanted to be the first.
29) Which of the following is true of the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum?
A) It consists exclusively of radiant energy made of gamma ray, X-ray, and ultraviolet
wavelengths.
B) It consists exclusively of streams of charged particles.
C) It consists of gamma ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths.
D) It consists exclusively of visible light and infrared energy.
30) Which of the following is true?
A) The Sun emits longwave radiation, whereas the Earth emits shortwave radiation.
B) The Sun emits shortwave radiation, whereas the Earth emits longwave radiation.
C) The radiation emitted by the Sun and the are roughly the same wavelength.
D) Because the Sun is so far away, it is impossible to measure the wavelengths of its radiation.
31) The two main portions of the solar spectrum which enter the atmosphere are
A) X-rays and visible light.
B) visible and infrared energy.
C) infrared and gamma rays.
D) ultraviolet and visible light.
32) The dominant wavelength emitted by Earth is
A) gamma radiation.
B) X-ray radiation.
C) visible light.
D) infrared.
33) Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer
wavelength?
A) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays
B) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared
C) gamma rays, microwaves, visible, X-rays
D) radio waves, light, heat, X-rays
34) The thermopause refers to
A) Earth's magnetic field.
B) the solar atmosphere that extends into space.
C) the top of Earth's atmosphere.
D) the Sun's surface.
35) Intercepted solar radiation is called
A) solar wind.
B) thermosphere.
C) solar constant.
D) insolation.
12
36) The average insolation received by the thermopause when the Earth is at its average distance
from the sun is known as the
A) solar constant.
B) solar wind input to the atmosphere.
C) energy balance.
D) incoming solar radiation.
37) The solar constant is measured at
A) the Sun's surface.
B) the edge of the Sun's atmosphere.
C) the thermopause.
D) sea level.
38) Which of the following is true relative to insolation at the thermopause relative to latitude?
A) Annually, insolation is evenly distributed with little change by latitude.
B) Annually, lower latitudes receive more insolation than the high latitudes.
C) Annually, higher latitudes receive more insolation than lower latitudes.
D) Insolation can only be measured longitudinally, not latitudinally.
39) The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of
A) variability in the Sun's output.
B) the changing distance of Earth from the Sun.
C) variation in the value of a watt.
D) Earth's curvature, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.
40) Radio waves have a ________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore ________
energetic.
A) longer; less
B) longer; more
C) shorter; less
D) shorter; more
41) The ________ emits mainly ________ which is also called ________.
A) Sun; longwave radiation; infrared
B) Sun; shortwave radiation; radio waves
C) Earth; longwave radiation; infrared
D) Earth; shortwave radiation; infrared
E) Earth; longwave radiation; ultraviolet
42) Which of the following is correct regarding daylength?
A) Daylength is uniform at all latitudes throughout the years.
B) People living at the equator experience 6 hours difference in daylength between the summer
and winter.
C) The equator always receives equal hours of day and night.
D) The range of daylength is shortest in the polar regions.
43) The southern hemisphere's summer solstice occurs
A) at the same time as the northern hemisphere's summer solstice.
B) on or around June 21.
C) on or around December 21.
D) during the northern hemisphere's equinox.
44) The term "net radiation" refers to
A) the total amount of energy received by Earth.
B) the total amount of energy radiated by Earth.
C) the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation.
D) radiation emitted by satellite networks.
45) Changes in daylength and the Sun's altitude above the horizon over the course of the year
A) produce Earth's rotation.
B) are phenomena that occur only at the equator.
C) are responsible for the seasons.
D) are factors that follow an irregular, random cycle.
46) At all times during the year, the circle of illumination
A) divides Earth between northern and southern hemispheres.
B) divides Earth into eastern and western halves.
C) separates winter from summer.
D) divides Earth between equal halves of lightness and darkness.
47) Which of the following is not true?
A) The Earth's axis is titled 23.5° relative to the plane of the ecliptic.
B) The axis through Earth's two poles points just slightly off Polaris.
C) During the winter months, the Earth's axis is aligned towards Southern Cross.
D) Throughout the year, the Earth's axis maintains the same alignment relative to the plane of the
ecliptic.
48) The Sun's altitude refers to
A) the angular distance from the equator to the latitude at which direct overhead insolation is
received.
B) the angular height of the Sun above the horizon.
C) the subsolar point.
D) how far the Sun is from Earth.
49) The Sun's declination refers to
A) the latitude of the subsolar point.
B) the angular height of the Sun above the horizon.
C) how far the Sun is from Earth.
D) its altitude, in thousands of feet, above the horizon.
50) The sun's declination migrates through ________ of latitude annually.
A) 23.5°
B) 30°
C) 47°
D) 66.5°
E) 133°
51) Which of the following is true of the number of hours of daylight?
A) The number of hours of daylight includes the hours between dawn and twilight, not just the
hours from sunrise to sunset.
B) The number of hours of daylight varies depending on the latitude of the observer.
C) The number of hours of daylight varies the most along the equator.
D) The number of hours of daylight varies the least at higher latitudes.
52) Which of the following is true regarding daylength?
A) The equator experiences at least six-hours difference in daylength from winter to summer.
B) Nowhere on Earth does daylength vary by as much as 24 hours.
C) Daylength varies more at the equator than at higher latitudes.
D) The people living at 40° N or S latitude experience about six-hours difference in daylength
from winter to summer.
53) Which of the following characterizes Earth's revolution?
A) It takes approximately 24 hours.
B) It is responsible for creating the circle of illumination, and hence, day/night relationships.
C) It is clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole.
D) It determines the timing of seasons and length of the year.
54) Which of the following cannot be attributed to the effects of Earth's rotation?
A) daylength
B) deflection of the winds
C) deflection of the ocean currents
D) rise and fall of tides
E) latitudinal variations in net radiation
55) Earth's rotation is described as
A) east to west.
B) north to south.
C) west to east.
D) clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole.
56) Which of the following is true regarding Earth's axis?
A) The amount of axial tilt fluctuates during the year and forms the basis for seasonal changes.
B) The axis remains parallel to the plane of the ecliptic.
C) Axial tilt is unrelated to the phenomenon of seasonal change.
D) The axis is tilted 23.5° from a perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.
57) Which of the following is not true regarding rotational velocities at different latitudes?
A) At 90° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1452 kmph (902 mph).
B) At 0° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1675 kmph (1040 mph).
C) At 60° latitude, the rotational velocity is 838 kmph (521 mph).
D) At 30° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1452 kmph (902 mph).
58)
Which of the following is true for the December Solstice?
A) The subsolar point is at the equator.
B) The Arctic Circle is completely within the circle of illumination.
C) The Antarctic Circle is completely within the circle of illumination.
D) The subsolar point is at the Tropic of Cancer (23.5° N).

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