Chapter 16 2 Human intervention along a coastline intended to interrupt beach

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
54) Human intervention along a coastline intended to interrupt beach drift can include all of the
following except
A) tombolos.
B) jetties.
C) breakwaters.
D) groins.
55) Long, narrow depositional features of sand that form offshore roughly parallel to the coast
are called
A) tombolos.
B) barrier beaches.
C) baymouth bar.
D) groins.
56) Barrier beaches and islands occur worldwide, lying offshore of nearly ________ of Earth's
coastlines.
A) 10 percent
B) 50 percent
C) 70 percent
D) 90 percent
57) Coral formations
A) tend to occur poleward of 30° latitude.
B) survive in a broad ecological range because they are tolerant of temperature, salinity, and
depth variation.
C) require water that is high in sediment concentration.
D) are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae.
58) Coral bleaching refers to
A) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution.
B) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae.
C) the loss of algae from the coral.
D) the process whereby corol change color to avoid detection by predators.
59) Which of the following is not correct regarding coral bleaching?
A) The 1998 El Niño event caused the die-off of an estimated 30% of the world's reefs.
B) Scientists have identified the reasons polyps eject their algae.
C) The warming of sea-surface temperatures is a great threat to coral.
D) Coral reefs are under pressure from overfishing, pollution, sedimentation, and global
warming.
60) Which of the following is an example of a coastal wetland?
A) playa lake
B) mangrove swamp
C) saltwater marsh
D) both mangrove swamp and saltwater marsh
E) playa lake, mangrove swamp, and saltwater marsh
61) Barrier islands make ________ sites for real estate development because ________.
A) good; they provide excellent scenery
B) good; they are made of rock and are quite stable
C) poor; they are unstable and often mobile
D) poor; they can be overrun by storm surges
E) poor; they are unstable and often mobile and they can be overrun by storm surges.
62) A major difference between a barrier island and a barrier spit is
A) a barrier spit is connected to the mainland, whereas a barrier island is not.
B) barrier spits are anthropogenic, modeled after natural barrier islands.
C) a barrier spit is a depositional feature that connects the barrier island to the mainland.
D) one of regional terminology, a barrier island and a barrier spit are the same thing.
63) A coral is a type of ________ that secretes ________ to form an organic rock home.
A) polyp; calcium carbonate
B) polyp; silica
C) algae; calcium carbonate
D) algae; silica
64) Coral and algae have a reciprocal relationship in which the algae perform photosynthesis,
providing the coral with nutrition and helping with the calcification process. In return, the coral
provide the algae with nutrients. This is an example of a ________ relationship.
A) parasitic
B) opportunistic
C) symbiotic
D) predator/prey
65) Large, lithified formations of calcium carbonate formed from both living and skeletal coral
colonies are called
A) atolls.
B) coral reefs.
C) barrier islands.
D) tombolos.
66) An atoll is approximately ________ in shape because it forms ________.
A) circular; around seastacks
B) circular; around submerged volcanic islands
C) linear; along barrier islands
D) linear; along continental shorelines
67) When coral expel their own nutrient-supplying algae, a phenomena called ________ often
follows.
A) bleaching
B) symbiosis
C) massive coral mortality (mcm)
D) coloration
68) Which of the following is not a cause of the ejection of nutrient-providing algae from coral?
A) pollution
B) sedimentation
C) oceanic acidification
D) warming sea-surface temperatures
E) pollution, sedimentation, acidication, and warming temperatures all contribute to this
phenomenon.
69) The sinuous, branching channels that characterize a salt marsh result from
A) animal paths through the marsh.
B) storm tracks.
C) manmade drainage canals.
D) the ebb and flow of tides.
70) The destruction of a mangrove swamp might lead to
A) the loss of aquatic species.
B) the erosion of the coast.
C) sediment accumulation on nearby reefs, and their consequent death.
D) loss of species, coastal erosion, and sediment accumulation.
E) there is no evidence of the loss of mangrove swamps.
71) The term eolian refers to
A) stream-related processes.
B) glacial processes in areas outside the polar regions.
C) erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind.
D) weathering and mass movement in humid regions.
72) For purposes of discussing eolian processes, the wind acts like a
A) solid.
B) gas.
C) plasma.
D) fluid.
73) The removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed
A) deflation.
B) abrasion.
C) saltation.
D) deposition.
74) A depression created by deflation is known as a
A) playa.
B) bolson.
C) blowout depression.
D) structural basin.
75) The grinding and shaping of rock surfaces by the "sand blasting" action of particles captured
in the air is termed
A) deflation.
B) abrasion.
C) saltation.
D) deposition.
76) The term used to describe rocks that are pitted, fluted, or polished from eolian erosion is
A) desert pavement.
B) pumice.
C) ventifacts.
D) deflation hollows.
77) Elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called
A) ventifacts.
B) yardangs.
C) desert pavements.
D) alluvial rock structures.
78) Desert pavement refers to
A) specially constructed roadbeds in dry and hot regions.
B) surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels.
C) deposits of silt and clay.
D) sand-covered surfaces.
79) Which of the following terms is not a correct reference to a desert pavement?
A) gibber plain
B) lag gravels
C) sand seas
D) reg desert
80) The smallest features shaped by individual saltating grains are
A) ripples.
B) dunes.
C) sand seas.
D) reg deserts.
81) The ability of the wind to move materials
A) exceeds that of other transporting agents, such as water and ice.
B) is small compared to other transporting agents, such as water and ice.
C) is greater than that of water because of the higher density of air compared to water.
D) increases with decreased wind speed.
82) An extensive area of sand and sand dunes is known as a(n)
A) reg desert.
B) erg desert, or sand sea.
C) lag desert.
D) desert pavement.
83) Which side of a dune typically has a slope angle equal to that of the angle of repose for sand?
A) windward
B) leeward
C) stoss
D) top
84) Relative to dune movement and form, a dune's slipface forms on which side?
A) leeward side
B) windward side
C) freedune side
D) none of the aboveit is not associated with a particular side
85) Which of the following is not a general shape upon which scientists classify dunes?
A) rectilinear
B) cresentic
C) linear
D) star
86) Which of the following is correct regarding loess deposits?
A) They are principally composed of sands and gravels.
B) They are formed of fine-grained clays and silts.
C) They are found only in the United States.
D) They form only following glacial activity.
87) Which of the following is not correct regarding loess?
A) It consists of fine-grained clays and silts and can form vertical cliffs.
B) It serves as good agricultural land.
C) It is derived from glacial outwash plains or deserts.
D) It has low binding strength.
88) Wind is ________ effective at eroding and transporting materials than other geomorphic
agents because its density is ________ that of other geomorphic agents.
A) more; higher
B) more; lower
C) less; higher
D) less; lower
89) Pebbles can be moved by ________ in a process known as ________.
A) deflation; saltation
B) deflation; surface creep
C) saltating particles; deflation
D) saltating particles; surface creep
90) Which of the following is an action individuals have taken to help reduce the impact of a
potential future tsunami?
A) drain coastal wetlands
B) construct jetties
C) remove barrier islands
D) plant mangroves
16.2 True/False Questions
1) Approximately 40% of the world's population lives in or near an ocean coast.
2) Water can be considered a "universal" solvent.
3) The concentrations of dissolved solids in seawater is known as salinity.
4) The composition of the ocean in terms of the ratio of individual mineral salts is remarkably
homogenous.
5) The salinity of seawater averages 35‰.
6) Although many elements are dissolved in seawater, no gases are dissolved in it.
7) The highest salinity values are found in equatorial oceans.
8) By definition, brackish water has a higher salinity than brine.
9) Freshwater runoff can reduce salinity.
10) Salinity increases with depth.
11) The freezing point of seawater is lower than that of freshwater due to the presences of
dissolved salts.
12) The oceans are slightly acidic, with an average pH of about 6.5.
13) The Earth's coastlines are among the oldest geomorphological structures on the planet.
14) The coastal environment and shallow offshore environment is also known as the littoral
zone.
15) The littoral zone only includes the land portion of coastal environments.
16) Sea level is an absolute value, forming the basis of all elevation/altitudinal measurements.

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