Chapter 13 Mammalian Herbivores Have More Ions Than Na

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Authors
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
113
Fluid and Acid-Base Balance
A. Multiple Choice
Key/
Page
No.
614
a. 2/3
b. 90%
c. 70%
d. 1/3 to 1/2
e. 10%
615
a. 40%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 70%
e. 10%
615
a. the ECF and ICF have the same composition.
b. the plasma and the interstitial fluid have similar composition.
c. the cellular proteins freely permeate into the ECF from ICF.
d. the concentration of sodium ions and potassium ions in ECF and ICF is the same.
e. all these.
615
a. In the ECF, Na+ is accompanied primarily by Cl- and to a lesser extent by HCO3-.
b. In the ICF K+ is accompanied by PO43-.
c. In most organisms Na+ is the primary ion in the ICF.
d. A fluid compartment found in all animals is produced by the digestive tract.
e. All plasma constituents except proteins are freely exchanged between plasma and
interstitial fluid.
615
membrane
a. is mainly due to the difference in the osmotic force between the ICF and the
interstitial fluid.
b. is controlled by the channel proteins in the plasma membrane.
c. is primarily due to the difference in the hydrostatic pressure between ICF and the
interstitial fluid.
d. all these.
e. none of these.
114
616
a. osmotic pressure of the cell increases.
b. water molecules accompany sodium ions.
c. the cell becomes swollen.
d. all these.
e. none of these.
617
a. having a water-proof cell wall around each cell.
b. having a cuticle that makes the body water-proof.
c. having an outer epidermis made of keratinized cells.
d. having equal concentration of molecules in ECF and ICF.
618,
619
a. organic osmolytes and compatible solutes
b. counteracting solute and TMAO
c. methylamine and proline
d. carbohydrate and myo-inositol
e. none of these.
617
environment, osmoconformers
a. raise their cellular content of sodium, potassium and chloride ions.
b. lower the level of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the ICF.
c. raise the osmotic pressure of ICF by raising the level of organic osmolytes.
d. raise intracellular ion content and ICF osmotic pressure.
e. lower ICF ion content and osmotic pressure.
617
a. polyols and sugars.
b. glycine and taurine.
c. methylamine and methylsulfonium.
d. urea.
e. all of these.
617
is used as an indicator of fish spoilage?
a. urea
b. ammonia
c. trimethylamine (TMA)
d. dimethylsufoxide (DMS)
e. taurine
115
618
balance instead of the more easily available inorganic osmolytes such as sodium,
potassium and chloride ions?
a. because organic osmolytes can be easily absorbed from the sea water
b. because organic osmolytes do not disrupt the function of macromolecules
c. because the cells can make organic osmolytes without using cellular energy
d. because the cells have to use energy to obtain inorganic osmolytes
620
a. can tolerate a wide range of osmotic changes in their marine environment.
b. have limited tolerance to changes in salinity of the surrounding sea water.
c. are adapted to live in marine and fresh water habitats.
d. use methylamines and amino acids in ECF to maintain osmotic balance.
e. regulate the osmolytes in ICF and ECF in order to survive extreme changes in
salinity of sea water.
620
a. strict osmoconformers.
b. hypo-ionic osmoconformers.
c. euryhaline.
d. stenohaline.
e. not capable of changing the composition of ECF when the osmotic pressure of sea
water changes.
621,
622
a. are ureosmotic conformers.
b. are hyper-ionic osmoconformers.
c. have ICF and ECF with equal or slightly higher osmotic pressure than the sea
water.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
622
a. is present in a 2:1 ratio with urea.
b. counteracts the toxic effect of urea.
c. serves as a hyper-ionic regulator.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
624
a. change the ECF osmotic pressure when osmotic pressure in the surrounding
water changes.
b. have to regulate ICF organic osmolytes to counteract cell volume changes.
c. maintain a relatively steady ECF osmotic pressure even when the osmotic
pressure changes in the external environment.
d. are hyperosmotic in marine environments.
e. are hypo-osmotic in freshwater environments..
116
630
a. 25%
b. 45%
c. 60%
d. 75%
e. None of these.
626
a. are hyper-osmotic regulators.
b. produce large volumes of hypotonic urine.
c. maintain lower internal osmolarities in order to minimize water intake.
d. are adapted to take in ions of sodium, chlorine and calcium by means of gills,
chloride cells and moist skin.
e. all these.
628,
629
a. the osmotic balance between the ECF and the ICF is carefully monitored and
controlled by the kidneys.
b. cells will lose water if the ECF becomes hypertonic.
c. some cells exhibit RVI (regulatory volume increase) as a way of compensating
water loss when the ECF becomes hypertonic.
d. the ICF is influenced by changes in the ECF.
e. all of these.
629
a. they can tolerate up to 30% loss of body water without any severe consequences.
b. they can slow down their metabolism when dehydration causes hypertonicity of
ECF.
c. they have the ability to maintain plasma volume at the same homeostatic range
even when the interstitial fluid becomes hypertonic.
d. their body cells do not go into osmotic shock when they drink water rapidly after
prolonged dehydration.
e. all of these.
631
a. ECF increases.
b. plasma volume increases.
c. arterial blood pressure is raised.
d. ECF and plasma volumes increase
e. all of these.
117
631
a. stimulates the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus and causes the release of
vasopressin (ADH).
b. may decrease systemic blood pressure.
c. may cause vasodilation in order to increase arterial blood pressure.
d. may cause the release of vasopressin and a decrease in systemic blood pressure.
e. may decrease systemic blood pressure and cause vasodilation.
632
the body?
a. salts of potassium
b. salts of sodium
c. salts of calcium
d. salts of magnesium
e. all of these equally.
632
a. have more K+ ions than Na+ ions in their ECF.
b. swap Na+ for K+ in the distal tubule secretion.
c. drink more water than carnivores.
d. have more K+ ions than Na+ ions in their ECF and swap Na+ for K+ in the distal
tubule secretion.
e. swap Na+ for K+ in the distal tubule secretion and drink more water than
carnivores.
633
a. vasopressin.
b. thirst.
c. increase of Na+ ions in ECF.
d. renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
e. decrease of K+ ions in ECF.
637
a. arterial blood has more hydrogen ions.
b. arterial blood has less acidic metabolites such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid.
c. venous blood has less carbon dioxide.
d. arterial blood always has more oxygen.
e. of the H+ ions generated during the formation of HCO3-.
637,
638
a. results when blood pH goes below 7.35.
b. reduces oxygen delivery to cells by hemoglobin.
c. depresses the central nervous system, and may lead to coma and death.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
118
638
a. kidney (renal) tubules remove hydrogen ions by tubular secretion.
b. kidney tubules retain more potassium ions than what the body needs.
c. retained potassium ions adversely affect cardiac functions.
d. kidney tubules secrete H+ and absorb K+.
e. all of these.
639
a. dietary intake of acids such citric acid and acetic acids.
b. phosphoric acids and sulfuric acids formed by protein metabolism.
c. fatty acid metabolites such as keto acids.
d. carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration.
e. hydrochloric acid produced by gastric glands.
640
a. hemoglobin.
b. peptide buffers.
c. carbon dioxide-bicarbonate buffers.
d. phosphate buffers.
e. Lactate buffers.
641
(Chrysemys picta) during winter is by
a. the carbon dioxide-carbonic acid buffers.
b. the massive shell of the turtle.
c. the phosphate buffers.
d. the protein buffers.
e. all of these.
640
a. is phosphates.
b. is histidine.
c. is hemoglobin.
d. is dipeptides.
e. all of these.
642
a. is an important ECF buffer.
b. is a urinary buffer.
c. is an intracellular buffer.
d. is an important ECF buffer and an intracellular buffer.
e. is a urinary buffer and an ICF buffer.
119
643
a. distal tubule and intercalated cells
b. Type A intercalated cells and H+ secretion
c. Type A intercalated cells and HCO3- reabsorption
d. proximal tubule and H+ secretion
e. fish gills and H+ ATPase pumps
645,
646
a. removing hydrogen ions from all the sources in the body.
b. excreting bicarbonate ions rapidly when acidity of body fluid decreases.
c. secreting ammonia into the urine.
d. removing hydrogen ions and secreting ammonia into the urine.
e. removing hydrogen ions, secreting ammonia into the urine, and excreting
bicarbonate ions when body fluid acidity decreases.
645
a. secrete more hydrogen ions into the filtrate.
b. filter out more bicarbonate ions from blood.
c. retain more hydrogen ions in blood.
d. reabsorb less bicarbonates from the filtrate.
e. two of these.
645,
646
a. secrete less hydrogen into the filtrate.
b. filter out more bicarbonate ions from blood into the filtrate.
c. reabsorb very little bicarbonate ions from the filtrate.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
647
a. is caused by hypoventilation.
b. is caused by hyperventilation.
c. may result from fever, anxiety, toxins and high altitude.
d. is caused by hypoventilation and may result from fever, anxiety, toxins and high
altitude.
e. is caused by hyperventilation and may result from fever, anxiety, toxins and high
altitude.
120
649
a. the body loses large quantities of hydrogen ions.
b. the digestive system fails to reabsorb the bicarbonate ions secreted into the
digestive tube by the digestive glands.
c. less hydrogen ions will be buffered by bicarbonate ions.
d. the body loses large quantities of hydrogen ions and the digestive system fails to
reabsorb the bicarbonate ions secreted into the digestive tube by the digestive
glands
e. the digestive system fails to reabsorb the bicarbonate ions secreted into the
digestive tube by the digestive glands and less hydrogen ions will be buffered by
bicarbonate ions.
B. True or False
615 secreted by specific cells into a particular cavity to perform some specialized function.
615 experiencing a negative water balance.
626
626 the ICF.
629
630
638
643
647
643
121
C. Matching
D. Essay
Page No.
hypo-osmotic osmoregulators. Your answer should specify how each group attains
osmotic balance.
and the sea water surrounding them? Why do stenohaline organisms die when
placed in fresh water?
osmoconformers and discuss the impact these substances have on ECF and ICF.
discussion any causes, effects, and compensatory mechanisms that might occur in
these situations.

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