Chapter 12 United fruit Can Considered Using Type Managing

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Management 6th Edition
Authors
Chuck Williams
Chapter 12Leadership
TRUE/FALSE
1. Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
2. One of the differences between managers and leaders is that managers focus on visions, missions,
goals, and objectives, and leaders focus solely on productivity and efficiency.
3. The primary difference between leaders and managers is that leaders are concerned with doing the
right thing, while managers are concerned with doing things right.
4. Managers tend to have a short-term perspective, leaders tend to have a long-term perspective.
5. According to the trait theory, all effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics.
6. Since there are no consistent trait differences between leaders and non-leaders, or between effective
and ineffective leaders, trait theory is wrong.
7. The leadership trait of integrity refers to the extent to which leaders do what they said they would do.
8. As a leader behavior, initiating structure is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of
followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks.
9. As a leader behavior, consideration refers to the extent to which leaders do what they said they would
do.
10. Initiating structure leader behavior has also been referred to as "job-centered leadership" and "concern
for production."
11. The leadership behavior of consideration has also been referred to as "concern for people" and
"employee-centered leadership."
12. While consideration primarily affects subordinates’ job performance, initiating structure primarily
affects subordinates’ job satisfaction.
13. Researchers believe leaders can simultaneously be considerate and initiate structure because
consideration and initiating structure are independent behaviors.
14. The three major situational leadership theories all assume that the effectiveness of any leadership style
(the way a leader generally behaves toward followers) depends on the situation.
15. There is no such thing as a "best" leadership style for all situations and employees.
16. Fiedler's contingency theory is based on the assumption that leaders are capable of adapting and
adjusting their leadership styles to fit the demands of different situations.
17. Fiedler's contingency theory states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be
matched to the situation that best fits their leadership style.
18. In Fiedler's contingency theory, the two situational factors that determine the favorability of a situation
are leader-member relations and task structure.
19. As described in the path-goal theory, directive leadership is similar to the key leadership behavior of
initiating structure.
20. Directive leadership is a leadership style in which leaders set challenging goals, have high expectations
of employees, and display confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth
extraordinary effort.
21. Within the path-goal model, the achievement-oriented and participative leadership styles directly
parallel the key leadership behaviors of initiating structure and consideration, respectively.
22. The normative decision theory helps leaders decide how much employee participation should be used
when making decisions.
23. Virginia blames the fact that she is always late to work on traffic rather than her inability to get up
early. She probably has a high external locus of control.
24. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory is based on the idea of worker readiness.
25. The two components of worker readiness are physical readiness and emotional readiness.
26. Robert Haas, CEO of Levi Strauss & Company, has been described as very detail oriented, which
means that he probably wouldn’t use a delegating style of management.
27. According to the normative decision theory, using the right degree of employee participation improves
the quality of decisions and the extent to which employees accept and are committed to decisions.
28. Strategic leadership is defined as the ability to think strategically and create a strategic plan for an
organization.
29. Transformational leadership is leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's
purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good
of the group.
30. While transformational leaders use visionary and inspirational appeals to influence followers,
transactional leadership is based on an exchange process.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ____is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
a.
management
b.
leadership
c.
interpersonal influence
d.
supervision
e.
autonomy
2. Which of the following is a major concern of managers (as opposed to leaders)?
a.
maintaining the status quo
b.
inspiring and motivating others
c.
taking a long-term view
d.
promoting change
e.
organizational improvements
3. One of the criticisms of the television industry is the networks' desire to maintain ratings by thinking in
terms of next week's programming. The networks are also more concerned with how to get high
program ratings quickly. This criticism assumes ____.
a.
doing the right things is more important than doing things right in the television industry
b.
the television industry benefits from strong leadership
c.
long-term strategy is more important than tactics in the television industry
d.
the television industry has a shortage of effective leadership
e.
the television industry attracts more architects than builders
4. Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?
a.
controlling and limiting the choices of others
b.
solving problems so that work can be done
c.
preserving the status quo
d.
inspiring and motivating others
e.
a focus on productivity and efficiency
5. Ford Motor Company has always attracted and nurtured capable managers, but it has failed to do the
same for leaders. Ford is embarking on a sweeping attempt to mass-manufacture leaders. It wants to
build an army of "warrior-entrepreneurs." Ford's "warrior-entrepreneurs" will be expected to ____.
a.
take a long-term perspective
b.
inspire and motivate employees to embrace change
c.
realize that results are more important than processes
d.
be architects rather than builders
e.
do all of these things
6. Companies whose executives do not try to motivate employees to create long-term solutions to the
problems facing the companies are most likely ________
a.
are true leaders
b.
are more interested in doing the right thing than doing things right
c.
are promoting long-term change
d.
tend to focus on organizational visions, missions, goals, and objectives rather than
organizational efficiency and productivity
e.
are more than likely managers rather than leaders
7. When Jack Welch, former Chairman of General Electric, a Fortune 5 company, assumed the role of
CEO, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company's structure and product lines. He
envisioned a bloated, inefficient General Electric becoming an efficient, profitable organization over
time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ____.
a.
would be characterized as a leader
b.
had a short-term perspective
c.
emphasized means rather than ends
d.
acted as a builder rather than an architect
e.
would be characterized as a manager
8. Which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
a.
Organizations need both leaders and managers.
b.
Leaders are critical to getting out the day-to-day work.
c.
Managers are critical to inspiring employees and setting long-term direction.
d.
Most organizations place greater emphasis on leadership than on management.
e.
All of these statements about leaders and managers are true.
9. Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of
behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership.
a.
situational theory
b.
behavioral theory
c.
trait theory
d.
expectancy theory
e.
path-goal theory
10. According to an article from CIO Magazine, "Leadership grows from courage and integrity." From this
opening statement, you know the article will discuss leadership from the ____.
a.
University of Michigan perspective
b.
trait theory viewpoint
c.
situational approach to leadership
d.
motivational approach to leadership
e.
Hershey and Blanchard perspective
11. The "great person" theory is another name for the ____ theory of leadership.
a.
Trait
b.
Behavioral
c.
Situational
d.
path-goal
e.
leader formalization
12. Which one of the following traits refers to high levels of effort and is characterized by achievement,
motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative?
a.
desire to lead
b.
motivational cues
c.
Drive
d.
self-confidence
e.
Charisma
13. Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others?
a.
honesty
b.
self-confidence
c.
emotional stability
d.
charisma
e.
extroversion
14. Oftentimes when an individual is running for a local political office, he or she makes lots of promises.
When the individual wins the election and assumes office, he or she is often unable to carry through on
political promises, an inability which leads to a perceived problem with ____.
a.
honesty
b.
integrity
c.
empathy
d.
drive
e.
charisma
15. Leaders who possess the trait of ____ are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others'
confidence.
a.
emotional stability
b.
integrity
c.
self-confidence
d.
drive
e.
cognitive ability
16. Which of the following traits refers to the tendency of leaders to remain even-tempered and consistent
in their outlook and the way they treat others even when things go wrong?
a.
honesty
b.
integrity
c.
emotional stability
d.
self-confidence
e.
cognitive ability
17. Successful business leaders are not like other people. Successful business leaders ____.
a.
have a desire to lead
b.
have emotional stability
c.
are knowledgeable about business
d.
are self-confident
e.
are accurately described by all of these
18. Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ____ and ____, are
central to successful leadership.
a.
initiating structure; consideration
b.
initiating structure; job-centered leadership
c.
employee-centered leadership; consideration
d.
concern for production; job-centered leadership
e.
autonomous; participative
19. Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
a.
initiating structure behavior
b.
participative management
c.
job-centered leadership
d.
concern for production
e.
employee-centered leadership
20. Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
a.
initiating structure behavior
b.
job-centered leadership
c.
concern for people
d.
concern for production
e.
participative management
21. In terms of leadership behavior, the term ____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly,
approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
a.
initiating structure
b.
job-centered leadership
c.
consideration
d.
concern for production
e.
autonomy
22. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research has made a study of how important it is for military leaders to
be friendly with and to show concern for their troops. Its research shows that a leadership behavior
high in ____ positively influences soldiers and their ability to adapt to stressful environments.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
23. Doris Cunningham, CEO of Members Choice Federal Credit Union in West Virginia, believes keeping
staff excited about the business they're in is one of a leader's primary roles. She believes a spirit of
enthusiasm must start at the top. This indicates that Cunningham is high in ____.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
24. United Fruit Company is the owner of the Chiquita brand of bananas. United Fruit emphasized how
the fruit was to be picked and packed for transportation and shows no concern for the workers. United
Fruit can be considered using _____ type of managing.
a.
achievement
b.
charisma
c.
consideration
d.
initiating structure
e.
vision
25. College football coaching requires that coaches design every facet of practices, set goals for their
players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the games. College football
coaching uses ____ type of managing.
a.
achievement
b.
consideration
c.
charisma
d.
initiating structure
e.
empathy
26. Recently, a newly appointed CEO of a major corporation began by firing the entire management
committee. A few months later, this same executive, fired two of his hand-picked senior executives.
From this information, it is obvious that this executive was more concerned about his employees’ ____
than their job satisfaction.
a.
worker synergy
b.
motivational cues
c.
job performance
d.
worker responsiveness
e.
vision
27. Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic’s
CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily
consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input
before making inventory decisions and treats her employees as equals. McLaughlin is demonstrating
____.
a.
achievement-orientation
b.
consideration
c.
charisma
d.
initiating structure
e.
empathy
28. Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?
a.
considerate leader behavior
b.
employee-centered leadership
c.
concern for people
d.
concern for production
e.
formalized people skills
29. A CEO who tours company plants to meet and talk to employees at all levels in order to better
understand their concerns and feelings is demonstrating which type of leader behavior?
a.
consideration
b.
leader formalization
c.
autonomy
d.
reciprocity
e.
initiating structure
30. Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts
primarily on ____.
a.
job satisfaction; job performance
b.
job performance; job satisfaction
c.
job performance; motivational drive
d.
job satisfaction; worker synergy
e.
job description; job specification
31. Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful
leadership is true?
a.
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration.
b.
These behaviors are dependent, meaning that leaders can only do one at a time.
c.
The worst leadership style entails the use of both behaviors in equal amounts.
d.
The best leadership style entails high levels of both of these behaviors.
e.
Most effective leaders select one behavior, adopt it, and maintain that style of leadership
for their entire careers.
32. Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful
leadership is true?
a.
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and constructing networks.
b.
These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time.
c.
These behaviors both impact primarily on job performance.
d.
These behaviors have minimal impact on work environments.
e.
All of these statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful
leadership are true.
33. Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
a.
team management
b.
middle of the road management
c.
authority-compliance
d.
country club management
e.
none of these
34. Bill Belichick is the coach of the New England Patriots football team. As a successful coach, he has to
schedule structured practices, emphasize careful planning, and assign tasks. He also has to show the
players that he genuinely cares about them as people. According to the Blake and Mouton grid,
Belichick’s leadership style would be characterized as ____.
a.
authority-compliance
b.
country club management
c.
middle-of-the-road management
d.
team management
e.
impoverished management
35. Which of the following is an example of a situational theory of leadership?
a.
stimulus-response theory
b.
trait theory
c.
Fiedler's contingency theory
d.
equity theory of leadership
e.
charismatic theory
36. W. L. Gore is the company that created Gore-Tex among many other innovative products. W.L.Gore
employees (known as associates) don’t have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates
make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. At W.L. Gore,
few leaders are appointed; leaders simply emerge as needed by the other employees or the project
itself. The Gore company more than likely adheres to the ____ theory of leadership.
a.
contingency
b.
normative
c.
strategic
d.
trait
e.
visionary
37. In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire,
fire, reward, and punish workers.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
leader-member relations
c.
task structure
d.
position power
e.
situational unfavorableness
38. In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either
permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
leader-member relations
c.
task structure
d.
position power
e.
task favorableness
39. Recently, a newly appointed CEO of a major corporation began by firing the entire management
committee. A few months later, this same executive, fired two of his hand-picked senior executives. In
terms of Fiedler's contingency theory, this executive was most concerned with establishing ____.
a.
situational favorableness
b.
consideration
c.
position power
d.
goal commitment
e.
empowerment quality
40. Larry Tobin is now president of Fairwinds Credit Union in Florida. After Mr. Tobin assumed the
presidency at Fairwinds, he made several personnel changes. Which of the following seems most
important to Tobin?
a.
situational favorableness
b.
initiating structure
c.
position power
d.
goal commitment
e.
empowerment quality
41. Larry Tobin is now president of Fairwinds Credit Union in Florida where he started as a part-time
teller. He's learned to ignore one bit of advice he's frequently heard, "Work with what you have."
Tobin doesn't buy that view. He subscribes to the philosophy that calls for "having the right people on
the bus and the right people in the right seats on the bus." After Tobin assumed the helm at Fairwinds,
he made several personnel changes. This ability to make these personnel changes defines Tobin's
____.
a.
employee orientation
b.
position power
c.
goal specificity
d.
Instrumentality
e.
tactical leadership skills
42. Some employees called former General Electric, CEO Jack Welch, "Bloody Jack" because his
restructuring efforts eliminated numerous jobs and product lines without thought about how individual
employees were impacted. Mr. Welch was viewed as "the hatchet man," and the source of the firings.
Under Fiedler's contingency theory, someone acting like Mr. Welch would be viewed as having ____.
a.
an emphasis on initiating structure
b.
a relationship orientation
c.
weak position power
d.
strong position power
e.
an emphasis on consideration
43. Which of the following approaches to implementing Fiedler's contingency theory in the workplace has
proven effective?
a.
accurately measuring and matching leaders to situations
b.
teaching managers how to change situational favorableness
c.
arbitrary definition of situations
d.
only hiring supervisors with appropriate leadership traits
e.
creating standing plans concerning leader actions and reactions
44. Which of the following leadership models stipulates that leaders should make it clear how followers
can achieve organizational goals, take care of problems that prevent followers from achieving goals,
and then find more and varied rewards to motivate followers who achieve those goals, these leaders
are demonstrating _____________?
a.
Fiedler's contingency theory
b.
Blake and Mouton's leadership grid
c.
the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model
d.
the path-goal theory
e.
the Boston Consulting Group leadership matrix
45. Which of the following is NOT one of the four leadership styles identified in the path-goal theory of
leadership?
a.
directive
b.
supportive
c.
participative
d.
charismatic
e.
achievement-oriented
46. According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what type of leadership is being practiced that
involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines
for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people
follow standard rules and regulations.
a.
people-oriented leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
directive leadership
47. According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what leadership style involves being friendly and
approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and
creating a friendly climate.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
leadership empowerment
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
participative leadership
48. A directive leader, one who lets his employees know precisely what is expected of them, give them
specific guidelines for performing tasks, schedules work, set standards of performance, and makes sure
that people follow standard rules and regulations would most likely have ______
a.
been very friendly with his employees
b.
told employees precisely what he expected them to do
c.
used employees' inputs before making decisions
d.
assumed his employees would assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort
e.
used delegation
49. Mr. Jan Carlson, the former CEO of Scandinavian Airline Systems (SAS), believes the most important
role for a leader is to instill confidence in people. According to the path-goal theory, this statement
indicates that his leadership style would be ____.
a.
directive
b.
achievement-oriented
c.
employee-centered
d.
supportive
e.
job-centered
50. According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ is very similar to considerate leader behavior.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
achievement-oriented leadership
e.
people-oriented leadership
51. Recently, a newly appointed CEO of a major corporation began by firing the entire management
committee. A few months later, this same executive, fired two of his hand-picked senior executives.
From this information, it is obvious that this executive was more concerned about his employees’
performances than their job satisfaction. From this information, what type of leadership style is being
used?
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
supportive
c.
charismatic
d.
directive
e.
participative
52. When Leon was hired to manage the distribution center, his supervisor advised him to “Do things that
satisfy followers today or will lead to future rewards or satisfaction” and “Offer employees something
unique and valuable beyond what they’re experiencing or can already do for themselves”. Leon’s
supervisor’s advice was designed to help Leon become a successful leader. Which leadership theory
does Leon’s supervisor apparently believe to be most effective in making a good leader?
a.
the trait theory of leadership
b.
strategic leadership
c.
the path-goal theory
d.
the theory of initiating structure
e.
the contingency theory
53. Under the leadership of Michael Eisner, The Walt Disney Company developed an “executive-centric,
Eisner-centric culture”—whatever Eisner wanted to happen, he made happen. In terms of the path-goal
theory, Eisner used a(n) ____ leadership style to improve Disney’s profitability.
a.
achievement-oriented
b.
supportive
c.
charismatic
d.
directive
e.
participative
54. According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involves consulting employees for their
suggestions and input before making decisions.
a.
directive leadership
b.
supportive leadership
c.
participative leadership
d.
consultative leadership
e.
achievement-oriented leadership
55. Which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency in path-goal theory?
a.
locus of control
b.
subordinate experience
c.
perceived ability
d.
subordinate performance
e.
task structure
56. Stan O’Neal is a former CEO of Merrill-Lynch. According to Hersey and Blanchard’s situational
theory, O’Neal is high in task behavior and low in relationship behavior. In other words, he uses a(n)
____ leadership style.
a.
telling
b.
empowering
c.
participating
d.
delegating
e.
selling
57. In the path-goal theory of leadership, subordinate satisfaction and subordinate performance would be
examples of ____.
a.
leadership stimuli
b.
subordinate contingencies
c.
environmental contingencies
d.
outcomes
e.
motivational cues
58. Which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency in path-goal theory?
a.
locus of control
b.
subordinate experience
c.
perceived ability
d.
subordinate performance
e.
task structure
59. The founder and CEO of a medical products distributor, establishes ambitious goals for his employees
and is confident that they will be able to achieve these goals. In terms of the path-goal theory, this
founder and CEO is exhibiting a(n) ____ type of leadership.
a.
participative
b.
achievement-oriented
c.
delegating
d.
empowering
e.
supportive

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