Chapter 12 2 The major rocks of Earth’s crust are classified into principal types

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 9th Edition
Authors
Robert W. Christopherson
54) Continental crust is basically ________, whereas oceanic crust is basically ________.
A) thin; thick
B) basalt; granite
C) granite; basalt
D) sima; sial
55) The three most abundant elements in Earth's crust are
A) rock, water, and tectonics.
B) magnesium, potassium, and oxygen.
C) iron, aluminum, and granite.
D) oxygen, silicon, and aluminum.
56) An element or combination of elements that forms an inorganic, natural compound is called a
A) tectonic rock.
B) granitic compound.
C) mineral.
D) molecule.
57) Which of the following is not a criteria to be classified as a mineral?
A) inorganic
B) anthropogenic
C) solid
D) definable chemical composition
E) crystalline structure
58) Approximately 95% of the Earth's crust is made up of
A) oxides.
B) phosphates.
C) silicates.
D) carbonates.
59) An assemblage of minerals bound together is called a
A) granitic compound.
B) mineral.
C) molecule.
D) rock.
60) The three basic rock types are
A) conglomerates, clastics, and evaporative.
B) intrusive, extrusive, and plutonic.
C) laterite, schist, and basalt.
D) sedimentary, metamorphic, and igeneous.
61) The major rocks of Earth's crust are classified into principal types based on
A) element composition.
B) mineral composition.
C) three specific rock-forming processes; i.e., the manner in which they formed.
D) relative and absolute locations.
62) What type of rock forms from the solidification of molten material?
A) sedimentary
B) metamorphic
C) igneous
63) Molten rock beneath the Earth's surface is known as ________, whereas molten rock on the
Earth's surface is called ________.
A) lava; magma
B) intrusive; extrusive
C) magma; lava
D) extrusive; intrusive
64) Which rock type makes up approximately 90% of the Earth's crust.
A) sedimentary
B) metamorphic
C) igneous
65) Intrusive igeneous cooled and hardened ________ the Earth's surface, resulting in ________
grained rocks.
A) beneath; finer
B) beneath; coarser
C) at; finer
D) at; coarser
66) Extrusive igeneous cooled and hardened ________ the Earth's surface, resulting in ________
grained rocks.
A) beneath; finer
B) beneath; coarser
C) at; finer
D) at; coarser
67) Obsidian is an igenous rock with a glassy appearance and minimal crystal growth. What
accounts for this?
A) Obsidian is an intrusive igneous rock that cooled slowly beneath the Earth's surface, result in
little crystal growth.
B) Obsidian is an extrusive igneous rock that cooled slowly on the Earth surface, resulting in
little crystal growth.
C) Obsidian is an extrusive igneous rock that cooled very slowly on the Earth surface, resulting
in little crystal growth.
D) Obsidian is an intrusive igneous rock that cooled rapidly beneath the Earth's surface, result in
little crystal growth.
68) Felsic igneous rock, such as granite and rhyolite,
A) have dark coloration.
B) are not resistant to weathering.
C) have a high melting temperature.
D) are high in silicate minerals.
69) Mafic igneous rock, such as gabbro and basalt,
A) are derived from magnesium and iron.
B) have light coloration.
C) are high in silicate minerals.
D) have a low melting temperature.
70) Which of the following is an example of an intrusive, igneous rock formation?
A) volcano
B) pluton
C) dome
D) lava flow
71) A batholith forms from
A) intrusive igneous rock.
B) extrusive igneous rock.
C) metamorphic rock.
D) sediment accumulation in a depression.
72) Small plutons that form parallel to layers of sedimentary rock are known as
A) dikes.
B) laccoliths.
C) sills.
D) batholiths.
73) What type of rock is derived from the bits and pieces of former rocks?
A) sedimentary
B) metamorphic
C) igneous
D) hydrothermal
74) Sedimentary rock formed from the combined processes of weathering, erosion,
transportation, deposition, lithication, and compaction of rock fragments of other rocks are
A) clastic.
B) biochemical.
C) organic.
D) chemical.
75) Which of the following lists, in proper sequential order, the steps leading to the formation of
clastic sedimentary rock?
A) erosion, transportation, deposition, cementation
B) erosion, deposition, transportation, cementation
C) erosion, transportation, deposition, metamorphism
D) precipitation, settling, compaction, cementation
76) Sedimentary rock formed from dissolved minerals that precipitate out of water solution and
build up to form rock are
A) clastic.
B) inorganic.
C) organic.
D) chemical.
77) Limestone formed from the shells of marine organisms is an example of ________
sedimentary rock.
A) clastic
B) biochemical
C) organic
D) chemical
78) Travertine, formed from the CaCO3
that has been precipated from groundwater, is an
example of ________ sedimentary rock.
A) clastic
B) biochemical
C) organic
D) chemical
79) If you were driving down the highway and saw mountains composed of layered strata, you
could be confident that you were looking at
A) sedimentary rocks.
B) extrusive igneous rock.
C) a shield volcano.
D) batholiths or laccoliths.
80) The presence of 180-million-year-old salt domes in the Gulf Coast region of the United
States indicates that
A) the area was once volcanically active.
B) the area was subjected to plate collisions which caused metamorphism to occur.
C) subsidence is now occurring due to the withdrawal of magma from the region.
D) a sea used to cover the area but subsequently evaporated.
81) A rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to
as
A) sedimentary.
B) metamorphic.
C) igneous.
D) ancient.
82) Which of the following is not a process than can cause metamorphism?
A) heating
B) solidification of magma
C) pressure
D) compression and shear
83) Which of the following is not correct regarding the metamorphism process?
A) It can be accomplished by heat.
B) It can be accomplished by pressure.
C) It involves melting of the original rock.
D) It can be accomplished by chemical processes.
84) Metamorphism that occurs when rocks are exposed to the pressure and extreme temperature
associated with intruding magma is known as
A) contact metamorphism.
B) regional metamorphism.
C) intrusive metamorphism.
D) extrusive metamorphism.
85) The occurrence of contact metamorphism would be direct evidence for
A) cementation of sedimentary rock.
B) the local intrusion of magma.
C) regional plate collision.
D) lithification of clastics.
86) Metamorphism that occurs over broad areas when the pressure and associated heat of of
overlaying rocks or other tectonic forces cause the rocks to undergo deformation is known as
A) contact metamorphism.
B) regional metamorphism.
C) intrusive metamorphism.
D) extrusive metamorphism.
87) The continuous alteration of Earth materials from one rock type to another is known as the
A) geologic cycle.
B) rock cycle.
C) hydrologic cycle.
D) tectonic cycle.
88) The ________ drives the exogenic processes of the rock cycle.
A) atmospheric circulation
B) rock cycle
C) hydrologic cycle
D) tectonic cycle
89) The ________ drives the endogenic processes of the rock cycle.
A) atmospheric circulation
B) rock cycle
C) hydrologic cycle
D) tectonic cycle
90) Limestone is a type of ________ rock that forms when ________.
A) igneous; magma cools
B) igneous; lava cools
C) sedimentary; calcium carbonate precipitates, or organic material containing calcium carbonate
accumulates in a water environment
D) sedimentary; broken fragments of rock are deposited in a water environment and are then
cemented together.
91) Sedimentary rocks are more a product of the ________ system whereas metamorphic and
igneous rocks are more a product of the ________ system.
A) tectonic; rock
B) endogenic; exogenic
C) exogenic; endogenic
D) intrusive; extrusive
92) Earth's crust is roughly made up of
A) mantle and core material.
B) at least 14 plates capable of movement.
C) strong, unbroken material.
D) a brittle material that does not move.
93) Which of the following is correct regarding continental drift?
A) It occurred about two billion years ago, but no longer occurs today.
B) The term "continental drift" is now called plate tectonics.
C) It does not occur because the crust is brittle.
D) It is an old theory that has been essentially disproven.
94) ________ is the theory that describes the motion of the Earth's lithosphere.
A) Plate tectonics
B) Sea floor spreading
C) Pangaea
D) Metamorphism
95) Which of the following is correct regarding Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift?
A) It was immediately adopted because of his geological background.
B) Although he provided a mechanism for continental drift, he could not find evidence of it.
C) He was the first to propose that the continents moved.
D) He believed that 225 million years ago all the continents were joined together to form
Pangaea.
96) Which of the following is not supporting evidence of plate tectonics?
A) similar rock assemblages on the east coast of South America and West Coast of Africa
B) the "jigsaw puzzle" shape of the continents
C) lack of oceanic ridges that would indicate sea floor spreading
D) the fossil and climatic record
97) Pangaea is currently dated at
A) 4.6 billion years ago.
B) about half the timespan of Earth's existence.
C) 225 to 200 million years ago.
D) 65 million years ago.
E) the beginning of the Holocene.
98) Which of the following is the fuel for continental drift and plate tectonics?
A) nuclear fusion
B) radioactive decay
C) solar energy
D) chemical reactions in Earth's core
99) Which of the following are located along the midocean ridges?
A) volcanoes
B) outcrops of granite
C) old oceanic sediments
D) evaporite deposits
100) At which of the following locations is new ocean crust being formed?
A) oceanic rift zones
B) along collision zones between two continents
C) along collision zones between two oceanic plates
D) in oceanic trenches
101) Along ________ new ocean floor is formed by upwelling flows of magma, whereas along
________ old oceanic crust is destroyed.
A) subduction zones; mid-ocean ridges
B) archipelagos; oceanic trenches
C) mid-ocean ridges; subduction zones
D) oceanic trenches; archipelagos
102) At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
A) along collision zones between two continents
B) at sea floor spreading zones
C) above mantle hot spots
D) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates
103) How does the ocean floor preserve evidence of past magnetic reversals.
A) Magnetic particles in basalt orient with the magnetic field in force at the time the oceanic lava
cooled and hardened.
B) Isotopic analysis of ocean core sediments help determine sea floor age and this can be used to
infer past magnetism.
C) The ocean floor is uniformly old, preserving the Earth's 4.6 billion history.
D) Mantle hot spots are always oriented to the magnetic field.
104) Ocean floor subducts under continents because
A) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
B) the ocean floor is made of felsic minerals and is heavier than continental material.
C) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental
material.
D) the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.
105) Which of the following is correct?
A) The age of the sea floor is the same in most areas of the ocean.
B) The age of the sea floor does not follow a discernable pattern.
C) The age of the sea floor increases with increasing distance from a mid-ocean ridge.
D) The age of the sea floor increases with increasing distance from a trench.
E) The oldest sea floor material is several billion years in age.
106) The oldest seafloor is a no more than 280 million years in old because
A) Earth is only 280 million years old.
B) the ocean floor is pushed up onto continental material during plate collisions.
C) the ocean floor subducts during plate collisions.
D) hot spots continuously destroy the ocean floor.
107) Mid-ocean ridges occur where
A) plates are moving apart (diverging).
B) plates are converging.
C) plates are sliding past one another (transform boundaries).
D) the geographic middle of an ocean basic occurs.
108) The process whereby one portion of the lithosphere beneath another and dives downward
into the mantel is called
A) rifting.
B) subduction.
C) compression.
D) isotaic uplift.
109) The lowest features on the Earth's surface coincide with
A) subduction zones.
B) mid-oceanic ridges.
C) transform plate boundaries.
D) divergent plate boundaries.

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