Chapter 11 Referents Are Others With Whom People Compare

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Management 6th Edition
Authors
Chuck Williams
Chapter 11Motivation
TRUE/FALSE
1. Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to
accomplish a goal.
2. According to some industrial psychologists, Performance = Motivation Ability.
3. According to industrial psychology, job performance is an additive function of motivation, ability, and
situational constraints.
4. Needs are defined in the text as the physical requirements that must be met to ensure survival.
5. The use of the need-satisfaction theories to determine what motivates employees is not a
straightforward task because different theories have identified different needs categories.
6. According to McClelland's Learned Needs Theory, people are motivated by a need for power,
achievement, and affiliation.
7. Once lower-order needs are satisfied, it is difficult to predict which higher-order needs will motivate
behavior.
8. An intrinsic reward is a reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
9. In general, extrinsic rewards are more important to workers than intrinsic rewards.
10. According to the equity theory, objective reality rather than employee perceptions that determines
employee motivation.
11. The basic components of equity theory are outcomes, instrumentality, and valence.
12. The two kinds of inequity are underreward and overreward.
13. Overreward frequently causes inequity.
14. Rationalizing or distorting outcomes may be used when other ways to restore equity aren't available.
15. Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation
decisions.
16. Expectancy theory describes one’s motivation as a primarily unconscious process.
17. According to expectancy theory, instrumentality is strong when employees believe that improved
performance will lead to better and more rewards.
18. The four kinds of reinforcement contingencies are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,
punishment, and extinction.
19. Both negative reinforcement and punishment weaken behavior (i.e., decrease its frequency).
20. Punishment is also called avoidance learning.
21. For punishment to work, the punishment must be strong enough to stop the undesired behavior, and
must be administered objectively, impersonally, consistently and contingently, and quickly.
22. Goal specificity is the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish.
23. One of the simplest, most effective ways to motivate workers is to give them specific, challenging
goals that they accept.
24. For goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers must provide frequent, specific,
performance-related feedback.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. According to the text, ____ is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their
efforts to accomplish a goal.
a.
attitude
b.
self-management
c.
persistence
d.
motivation
e.
compliance
2. The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.
a.
compliance
b.
self-management
c.
motivation
d.
performance
e.
efficiency
3. According to some industrial psychologists, ____ is a function of motivation times ability times
situational constraints.
a.
leadership skill
b.
creativity
c.
job performance
d.
performance valence
e.
compliance
4. According to some industrial psychologists, job performance is a(n) ____ function of motivation,
ability, and situational constraints.
a.
circular
b.
multiplicative
c.
nonlinear
d.
additive
e.
corollary
5. Asa and Ruby both sell insurance. Asa is married, has three children, and a new house. Ruby is single
and has recently purchased a new Lexus. According to some industrial psychologists ____.
a.
they will be motivated by the same needs
b.
Asa can be motivated through need, and Ruby cannot
c.
Ruby has no needs
d.
how well their employer motivates them relates directly to their individual needs
e.
none of these is true
6. A sales manager has carefully selected the members of two sales teams so that they have, as nearly as
possible, identical skills and abilities. Both are assigned potential customers in the same industry. Both
groups are offered the same rewards. One team makes the sale, and the other does not. This
information tells you that ____.
a.
performance and motivation are unrelated
b.
the concept of synergy is faulty
c.
one of the components that leads to job performance was weak
d.
nothing motivates some people
e.
all of these are true
7. A glass of water and shelter from a snowstorm would be examples of ____, and a gold necklace and
tickets to see professional wrestling would not be.
a.
intangible motivators
b.
perceptional drives
c.
motivational cues
d.
performance modifiers
e.
low-order needs
8. McClellend's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are the needs for ____.
a.
achievement, relatedness, and growth
b.
existence, relatedness, and growth
c.
affiliation, growth, and power
d.
power, self-actualization, and growth
e.
power, achievement, and affiliation
9. On the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are ____.
a.
tangible and intangible needs
b.
physiological and psychological needs
c.
higher-order and lower-order needs
d.
extrinsic and intrinsic needs
e.
realized and unrealized needs
10. The owner of a small local chain of retail stores that target affluent women and carry eclectic lines of
wrapping paper, stationery, invitations, and gifts has expressed a strong need to expand nationwide.
According to McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory, the owner has a need for ____.
a.
achievement
b.
esteem
c.
growth
d.
self-actualization
e.
affiliation
11. According to Alderfer's ERG theory, the lowest-order need is ____.
a.
existence
b.
relatedness
c.
physiological needs
d.
ego-related
e.
empathy
12. According to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces ____.
a.
tension
b.
high levels of creativity
c.
sacrificing acquisition
d.
problem-solving efficiency
e.
selective perception
13. Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer,
shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of
wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as
defined by Maslow?
a.
achievement
b.
belongingness
c.
safety
d.
physiological needs
e.
achievement
14. Which of the following statements about needs is true?
a.
In all situations, higher-order needs can be used to motivate.
b.
The importance of lower-order needs is identified by all needs theories.
c.
The relative importance of the various needs may change over time in a predictable
pattern.
d.
Higher-order needs are concerned with survival and security.
e.
Higher-order needs will generally not motivate people as long as lower-order needs
remain unsatisfied.
15. A group of actors gather to read the critical reviews of the new play they presented to audiences last
night. The actors are looking for ____ rewards.
a.
extrinsic
b.
psychological
c.
assigned
d.
intangible
e.
intrinsic
16. A concert pianist had always wanted to play jazz and was elated when he got the opportunity to play
piano with a group of talented New Orleans jazz musicians. He experienced a(n) ____ reward.
a.
extrinsic
b.
physiological
c.
assigned
d.
tangible
e.
intrinsic
17. Extrinsic rewards are ____.
a.
intangible
b.
exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques
c.
exemplified by a sense of accomplishment at the conclusion of a difficult assignment
d.
rewards associated with performing a task for its own sake
e.
much more effective motivators than intrinsic rewards
18. Which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?
a.
a sense of achievement
b.
a feeling of responsibility
c.
a salary increase
d.
pride from accomplishing a difficult task
e.
all of these
19. ____ are the rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
a.
Extrinsic rewards
b.
Intrinsic rewards
c.
Motivational cues
d.
Performance valences
e.
Physiological rewards
20. Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?
a.
a bonus
b.
a contest prize
c.
a sense of achievement
d.
a trophy
e.
all of these
21. Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by ____.
a.
relying on the innate value of extrinsic rewards
b.
satisfying higher-order needs first
c.
asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
d.
expecting employees’ needs to remain stable
e.
doing all of these
22. What practical steps can a manager take to motivate employees to increase their effort?
a.
determine how other companies within the industry are satisfying employees’ needs
b.
satisfy employees’ lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs
c.
expect employees’ needs to be stable
d.
gradually replace extrinsic rewards with intrinsic rewards that are less expensive
e.
do all of these
23. According to ____, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly.
a.
expectancy theory
b.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
c.
equity theory
d.
Alderfer's ERG Theory
e.
reinforcement theory
24. Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's
sporting significant discrepancies still exist between men's and women's sports. For example, women
receive less media coverage, promotion, and institutional support. According to ____, the motivation
for women athletes to perform at the top of their ability is less than that for men.
a.
equity theory
b.
reinforcement theory
c.
goal-setting theory
d.
theory of procedural justice
e.
expectancy theory
25. Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's
sporting leagues have led to dramatic increases in opportunities for women in sports significant
discrepancies still exist between men's and women's sports. For example, women receive less media
coverage, promotion, and institutional support. According to equity theory, media coverage, access,
promotion, and institutional support are all examples of undesirable ____ for female athletes.
a.
referents
b.
valences
c.
expectancies
d.
outcomes
e.
certainties
26. Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) pays Olympic athletes $25,000 for each gold medal,
$15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. Since 1960, the Paralympics for disabled
athletes has been a part of the Olympic Games, yet the USOC pays disabled athletes only 10 percent of
what the Olympic athletes are paid, and Paralympic athletes are not allowed to participate in opening
ceremonies. Paralympic athletes are angry at being treated unfairly. These athletes view Olympic
athletes as ____.
a.
valence bearers
b.
instrumental participants
c.
referents
d.
mentors
e.
reinforcers
27. Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) pays Olympic athletes $25,000 for each gold medal,
$15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. The USOC pays disabled athletes only 10
percent of what the Olympic athletes are paid. Paralympic athletes are angry at being treated unfairly.
What kind of inequity are the Paralympic athletes experiencing?
a.
adverse valence
b.
negative instrumentality
c.
underreward
d.
negative outcome
e.
overreward
28. Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's
sporting leagues have led to dramatic increases in opportunities for women in sports at high school,
collegiate, and professional levels, significant discrepancies still exist between men's and women's
sports. According to equity theory, female athletes should feel that male athletes are being ____.
a.
overrewarded
b.
synergized
c.
underrewarded
d.
extrinsically rewarded
e.
goal reinforced
29. Which of the following is a basic component of equity theory?
a.
valences
b.
reinforcement
c.
referents
d.
instrumentality
e.
expectancy
30. In equity theory, ____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have
been treated fairly.
a.
liaisons
b.
valence bearers
c.
mentors
d.
reinforcers
e.
referents
31. The two basic kinds of inequity are ____.
a.
performance and situational inequities
b.
underreward and overreward
c.
balanced and unbalanced rewards
d.
intrinsic and extrinsic inequities
e.
higher-order and lower-order inequities
32. In equity theory, after a(n) ____ comparison in which they compare their outcomes to their inputs,
employees then make a(n) ____ comparison in which they compare their O/I ratio with the O/I ratio of
a referent.
a.
tangible; intangible
b.
lower level; higher level
c.
predictable; unpredictable
d.
internal; external
e.
extrinsic; intrinsic
33. According to equity theory, when employees perceive ____, they tend to experience anger or
frustration.
a.
overreward
b.
underreward
c.
adverse instrumentality
d.
negative motivational cues
e.
negative reinforcement
34. Which type of inequity occurs more frequently in theory than in practice?
a.
overreward
b.
underreward
c.
negative expectancy
d.
negative valence
e.
instrumentality
35. According to the motivational model presented in the text, perceived inequity directly affects ____.
a.
cultural synergy
b.
autonomy
c.
satisfaction
d.
rewards
e.
motivational direction
36. How do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
a.
by rationalizing inputs or outcomes
b.
by changing the referent
c.
by simply quitting their jobs
d.
by reducing the level of energy and time they input into a project
e.
by doing any of these
37. For workers who feel underpaid, creating a union at their place of employment to attain higher wages
can be a mechanism for restoring equity by ____.
a.
reducing inputs
b.
increasing outcomes
c.
changing the referent
d.
rationalizing inputs or outcomes
e.
reducing employee turnover
38. Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee pays Olympic athletes for each medal earned. gold medal,
$15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. Since 1960, the Paralympics for disabled
athletes has been a part of the Olympic Games, yet the USOC pays disabled athletes only 10 percent of
what the Olympic athletes are paid, and Paralympic athletes are not allowed to participate in opening
ceremonies. Paralympic athletes are angry at being treated unfairly. To achieve perceived equity, the
Paralympic athletes are suing the USOC for larger rewards. Paralympic athletes have decided to deal
with the inequity by ____.
a.
rationalizing inputs
b.
changing the referent
c.
changing instrumentality
d.
reducing the level of energy and time they input into a project
e.
increasing outcomes
39. In equity theory, ____ refers to the fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions.
a.
process objectivity
b.
procedural justice
c.
conventional wisdom
d.
altruism
e.
distributive justice
40. ____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated.
a.
Procedural justice
b.
Distributive justice
c.
Equity
d.
Postconventional perception
e.
Process objectivity
41. The ____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will
lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive
rewards.
a.
reinforcement theory
b.
equity theory
c.
expectancy theory
d.
goal-setting theory
e.
theory of motivational instrumentality
42. Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) pays Olympic athletes $25,000 for each gold medal,
$15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. Since 1960, the Paralympics for disabled
athletes has been an integral part of the Olympic Games, yet the USOC pays disabled athletes only 10
percent of what the Olympic athletes are paid, and Paralympic athletes are not allowed to participate in
opening ceremonies. For disabled athletes who believe their efforts will not be fairly rewarded, the
motivation to win a Paralympics medal would have a(n) ____.
a.
low valence
b.
strong expectancy
c.
low performance value
d.
high valence
e.
strong instrumentality
43. According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of
teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. For engineering students who
believe their efforts will lead to better teaching, the motivation to fill out a teaching evaluation would
have a ____.
a.
low valence
b.
weak expectancy
c.
low performance value
d.
high valence
e.
strong instrumentality
44. The city of Cairo has the world’s greatest collection of Islamic buildings and statues. It would seem an
ideal location for Muslim tourists, but unfortunately preservation activities have been inadequate and
often more destructive than constructive. Imagine the Egyptian government is instituting a marketing
campaign to motivate tourists to spend their vacation dollars in Cairo. The buildings and statues in the
city would have a(n) ____ to Muslim tourists who wanted to learn more about their heritage.
a.
low valence
b.
strong expectancy
c.
low performance value
d.
high valence
e.
strong instrumentality
45. According to the expectancy theory, ____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their
motivation.
a.
equity, value-added, and instrumentality
b.
valence, expectancy, and instrumentality
c.
expectancy, reinforcement, and instrumentality
d.
instrumentality, equity, and expectancy
e.
expectancy, equity, and reinforcement
46. According to expectancy theory, in order for people to be highly motivated, ____ must be high.
a.
value added
b.
reinforcement usage
c.
instrumentality
d.
equity
e.
referent power
47. According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, students' motivation to participate in teaching
evaluations is impacted significantly by their expectation that they will be able to provide meaningful
feedback. In other words, if they are going to expend the thought and effort to fill out evaluation
forms, (1) Is the form designed to gather meaningful information? and (2) Do the students have
enough information to form a meaningful opinion about the instruction? In terms of expectancy theory,
students are concerned with ____, or whether it is worth their efforts.
a.
valence
b.
reciprocity
c.
expectancy
d.
instrumentality
e.
synergy
48. According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of
teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. In terms of the expectancy
theory, the likelihood that students feel their inputs on the evaluations will lead directly to improved
instruction is called ____.
a.
valence
b.
reciprocity
c.
expectancy
d.
instrumentality
e.
synergy
49. In expectancy theory, ____ is the perceived relationship between effort and performance.
a.
valence
b.
equity
c.
expectancy
d.
synergy
e.
instrumentality
50. In expectancy theory, ____ is the perceived relationship between performance and rewards.
a.
valence
b.
reciprocity
c.
expectancy
d.
instrumentality
e.
synergy
51. To use expectancy theory to motivate employees, managers can
a.
assign specific, challenging goals
b.
make all rewards equal in value
c.
avoid overreward and underreward
d.
avoid the use of empowerment
e.
systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
52. Reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of ____.
a.
perception
b.
environment
c.
its consequences
d.
conscious choices
e.
the situations in which it occurs
53. ____ is the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior.
a.
Consequential modification
b.
Behavioral substantiation
c.
Valence manipulation
d.
Expectancy feedback
e.
Reinforcement
54. ____ are the cause-and-effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific
consequences.
a.
Reinforcement temporality effects
b.
Reinforcement contingencies
c.
Reinforcement schedules
d.
Consequences of reinforcement
e.
Reinforcement expectancies
55. The primary ways to create reinforcement contingencies in organizations are ____.
a.
reinforcement contingencies and the schedules of reinforcement
b.
extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
c.
perceptions of equity and reward desirability
d.
situational motivators
e.
higher-order needs and organizational structure
56. The two parts of reinforcement are ____.
a.
reinforcement temporality and reinforcement administration
b.
positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
c.
continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement
d.
reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement
e.
interval reinforcement and ratio reinforcement
57. The city of Cairo has the world’s greatest collection of Islamic buildings and statues. It would seem an
ideal location for Muslim tourists, but unfortunately preservation activities have been inadequate and
often more destructive than constructive. Imagine the Egyptian government is instituting a marketing
campaign to motivate tourists to spend their vacation dollars in Cairo. Imagine tourists visiting Cairo
and being motivated never to visit there again due to the fact that every old building they saw seemed
more likely to cave in than the last one they had seen. In terms of motivational theory, ____ would
have occurred.
a.
instrumentality
b.
punishment
c.
goal acceptance
d.
contingency feedback
e.
valence modification
58. Which of the following is NOT a type of reinforcement contingency?
a.
negative reinforcement
b.
punishment
c.
extinction
d.
overreward
e.
positive reinforcement
59. Driving in heavy traffic makes Hal very anxious and sometimes angry. He leaves home earlier than
usual one morning and doesn't run into heavy traffic. He leaves home earlier again the next morning,
and again he avoids heavy traffic. His behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the
consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. What kind of reinforcement has occurred in this
example?
a.
negative reinforcement
b.
extinction
c.
punishment
d.
intermittent reinforcement
e.
overreward
60. ____ strengthen behavior (i.e., increase its frequency).
a.
Positive and negative reinforcement
b.
Negative reinforcement and extinction
c.
Positive reinforcement and extinction
d.
Negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and punishment
e.
Negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, extinction, and punishment
61. Users of credit and debit cards that earn the owners money or rewards towards future purchases, is an
example of _______.
a.
underreward
b.
punishment
c.
extinction
d.
positive reinforcement
e.
negative reinforcement
62. Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?
a.
positive reinforcement
b.
negative reinforcement
c.
punishment
d.
extinction
e.
intermittent reinforcement
63. ____ is a reinforcement strategy which weakens a behavior over time because the behavior has no
consequences, positive or negative.
a.
Positive reinforcement
b.
Negative reinforcement
c.
Punishment
d.
Reinforcement reversal
e.
Extinction
64. Excessive speed is a major cause of road crashes in Australia. The Australian government is thinking
of using cameras to catch speeders. According to reinforcement theory, Australian officials are using
____ to control speeding.
a.
avoidance learning
b.
expectancy modification
c.
negative reinforcement
d.
positive reinforcement
e.
punishment
65. Because workplace injuries cost U.S. businesses $1 billion every week, increased safety compliance
needs to become a practice, not just a theory. The goal of developing safety consciousness within the
workforce requires continuous reinforcement at every organizational level. This means ____.
a.
no consequences should be delivered until reinforcement can be handed out to everyone
b.
a consequence must be delivered following every instance of behavior
c.
consequences should be delivered following a variable reinforcement schedule
d.
consequences should be delivered following an average number of behaviors
e.
none of these is true
66. A(n) ____ is the set of rules regarding reinforcement contingencies such as which behaviors will be
reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those
consequences will be delivered.
a.
contingency of reinforcement
b.
instrumentality of reinforcement
c.
schedule of reinforcement
d.
expectancy of reinforcement
e.
PERT (Positive Examples through Reinforced Timing) plan

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