Chapter 11 But When Their Oi Ratio Different from Their

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Management 6th Edition
Authors
Chuck Williams
108. Refer to WWYD SAS. Not everyone is attracted by the same rewards. According to expectancy
theory, the Google engineer likely considered the offer of a $500,000 cash retention bonus apparently
to have a very low:
a.
difficulty
b.
specificity
c.
intrinsic value
d.
frequency
e.
valence
109. Refer to WWYD SAS. Jeffrey Chambers talks about providing intellectually challenging work for
SAS employees. That is, SAS is satisfying its employees’_____needs.
a.
safety
b.
physiological
c.
lower-order
d.
higher-order
e.
valence
110. Refer to WWYD SAS. By paying everyone the same percentage of salary based on company
performance, SAS is drawing most heavily from_____theory.
a.
needs
b.
expectancy
c.
reinforcement
d.
equity
e.
goal-setting
SHORT ANSWER
1. Briefly explain the following equation: Job Performance = Motivation Ability Situational
Constraints.
2. Briefly explain the relationship between need satisfaction and motivation.
3. Give an example of one well-known needs theory. Be sure to identify the needs described by that
theory.
4. Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Which are most important to workers in general?
ANS:
5. Define equity theory. List its basic components and give one example of each of these components.
6. Briefly identify the two types of inequity. What are the accompanying psychological reactions of the
person perceiving each type of inequity?
7. Differentiate between distributive and procedural justice. Briefly explain how each relates to
motivating with equity theory.
ANS:
8. Define expectancy theory. Identify the theory's three key concepts.
9. Briefly identify the ways in which managers can use expectancy theory to motivate employees.
10. What are reinforcement contingencies? How are reinforcement contingencies related to behavior?
11. How can managers use reinforcement theory to motivate their employees?
12. Describe goal-setting theory. Briefly identify the theory's basic components.
ESSAY
1. Identify the four things that the basic model of work motivation suggests managers can use to motivate
employees. Explain how each of these strategies might be used to motivate a 55-year-old tenured
professor whose teaching performance has become very weak over the past three years. Briefly explain
the relevance of the industrial psychology formulation of the relationship between performance and
motivation to the analysis you provide. Be sure to clarify any assumptions that you are making.
2. Define equity theory. Identify the five ways in which people try to restore equity when they perceive
that they have been treated unfairly. Describe a circumstance in which you or someone you know
experienced inequity in a work situation. Explain the actions you (or that person) took to restore
equity.
ANS:
3. Explain expectancy theory. Use the concepts and principles from this theory to illustrate how you
personally chose to work harder (or less hard) in a particular course because of your perceptions
regarding the probable results (i.e., degree of payoff) of your level of effort in that course at that point
in your life.
4. What is the relationship between reinforcement and reinforcement theory? Describe how
reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement affect behavior.
5. Imagine that you have just been elected chair of a campus committee that is trying to raise $100,000 in
scholarship funding for disabled youth. Your committee is composed of 15 college instructors,
students, and staff with an additional 25 community volunteers who have agreed to provide ideas and
labor in the fundraising effort. Explain how you, in your role as chair, would use the principles of
goal-setting theory to achieve your committee's goal.
ANS:
6. Explain the relationship posited by industrial psychologists between motivation and job performance.
Use a specific example from your readings or experiences to illustrate how one or more of the specific
motivational models described in this chapter might integrate with the industrial psychology model to
provide a fuller understanding of work performance. Cite three implications for managers based upon
your analysis.
ANS:

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