Chapter 10 Defense Systems Key Page Multiple Choice No

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms 2nd Edition
Authors
Hillar Klandorf, Lauralee Sherwood, Paul Yancey
87
Defense Systems
A. Multiple Choice
Key/
Page
No.
459
a. have the ability to produce a disease.
b. may disrupt normal cellular processes and causing the release of nutrients.
c. may be intracellular or extracellular organisms.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
460
a. the presence of interleukins
b. innate immunity.
c. the presence of cytokines
d. Toll-like receptors
e. all of these.
460,
461
a. cytokines and nongland cells
b. vertebrate immune cell communication and immunosynapse
c. inflammation and second line of defense
d. amoebocytes and hemocytes
e. antimicrobial peptides and opsonin
464,
465
a. natural killer cells
b. neutrophils
c. eosinophils
d. natural killer cells and neutrophils
e. neutrophils and eosinophils
465
a. are transformed monocytes
b. are a subset of B-cells
c. a subset of T-cells
d. are macrophages that remain in the circulation
e. are analogous to sensing-integrating endocrine glands.
88
465
a. lymph nodes
b. spleen
c. tonsils
d. bone marrow
e. thymus
465
a. complement
b. interleukin
c. cytokines
d. interferon
e. complement and interferon
466
a. Sweat glands are derived from the epidermis.
b. Sweat glands are important in thermoregulation.
c. Sweat glands produce anti-microbial compounds.
d. Sweat glands produce sebum.
e. None of these.
466-
467
a. melanocytes
b. keratinocytes
c. dendritic cells
d. Granstein cells
e. All of these play a role in immune function.
466,
467
contaminated surface is
a. macrophages.
b. mast cells.
c. the skin.
d. mucous membranes.
e. Langerhan cells.
468
a. vasodilation, bringing phagocytic cells to the site of infection.
b. invading bacterial cells to lyse.
c. invading bacterial cells to coagulate.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
89
469
a. nitric oxide
b. cathelicidins
c. interleukin-1
d. TLRs
469
________, making iron unavailable for bacterial multiplication.
a. transferrin
b. heme
c. lactoferrin
d. lactose
e. macferrin
469
a. activate the complement system.
b. enhance vascular permeability.
c. convert kininogens to kinins.
d. activate pain receptors at the site of a wound.
e. act as chemotaxins.
469
a. functions as an endogenous pyrogen.
b. stimulates the release of prostaglandins within the hypothalamus.
c. decreases plasma iron concentrations
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
471
interferon functions in
a. interfering with the replication of extracellular bacteria.
b. inhibiting replication of viruses in cells infected with them.
c. preventing viruses from adhering to the cell surface and injecting their genetic
material.
d. is a cytokine that blocks replication of virally infected cells.
e. more than one of these.
471
a. Cytotoxic T-cells
b. Natural killer cells
c. Lymphocytes
d. Macrophages
e. Granulocytes
90
472
a. antibody presenting cells.
b. macrophages.
c. monocytes.
d. plasma cells.
e. serum cells.
472
a. stores lymphocytes.
b. processes lymphocytes.
c. includes the adenoids.
d. is found in the lining of the digestive tract.
e. all of these.
473
a. Interferon
b. Cathelicidin
c. Thymosin
d. Erythropoietin
e. Insulin
473,
474
a. The more complex a foreign molecule the greater its antigenicity.
b. Isolated molecules may act as antigens.
c. Large polysaccharides may act as antigens.
d. T cells reside in colonies.
e. The key to B- and T-cell specificity is the TLRs present in their membrane that
binds antigens.
475
a. IgM
b. IgA
c. IgG
d. IgE
e. IgD
474
a. structure of the arm region of the "Y."
b. structure of the tail region of the "Y."
c. Fc region of the antibody.
d. variability between the arm and tail region of the “Y”.
e. process of optimization during development.
91
475
a. antibodies buffer the pH of plasma in a way that is inhospitable to invading
bacteria.
b. antibodies crosslink antigens into chains or clumps, preventing them from exerting
their pathogenic effects.
c. antibodies combine with bacterial toxins, preventing them from harming
susceptible cells.
d. none of these.
475
a. agglutination of foreign cells
b. activation of the complement system
c. enhancement of phagocytosis
d. stimulation of killer cells.
e. All of these are functions of antibodies.
482,
483
a. Langerhans cells
b. T helper 2 cells
c. angry macrophages 9activated macrophages with high phagocytic activity)
d. dendritic cells
e. none of these.
476
a. hippocampal neurons.
b. exocrine cells that produce milk.
c. dormant, non-secreting B-cells.
d. dormant, non-secreting T-cells.
e. antibody secreting B-cells.
480
a. B-cells contain more genes than other cells of the body.
b. once the gene encoding an antibody is transcribed, the mRNA is sloppily translated,
in effect introducing mutations (and therefore diversity) post-translationally.
c. even though they have the same number of genes as other cells of the body,
virtually all of their genome is dedicated to antibody genes.
d. the gene fragments encoding antibodies are cut, reshuffled and spliced during a B-
cell's development, enabling innumerable amino acid sequences to be generated.
e. None of these.
483
assistance of a number of other types of cells, including
a. macrophages.
b. dendritic cells.
c. T-helper cells.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
92
484
by the presence of
a. cytokines.
b. interleukins.
c. MHC I.
d. MHC II.
e. nanotubes.
482
a. the spleen.
b. helper T-cells.
c. cytotoxic T-cells.
d. killer T-cells.
e. B-cells.
485,
486
tissues involves
a. clonal deletion.
b. clonal anergy.
c. receptor editing.
d. immunological ignorance.
e. all of these.
486
a. the existence of an immune system in a limited number of taxa.
b. the inhibition throughout life of immune cells that are specific for the body’s own
tissues.
c. the ability of the eyes to escape immune attack.
d. two of these.
486
a. AIDS.
b. type I diabetes.
c. multiple sclerosis.
d. lupus.
e. rheumatoid arthritis.
484
a. was first observed in virally infected fish.
b. is a group of cells responsible for presenting antigens to B-cells to stimulate
antibody production.
c. is a cluster of genes which encode self-antigens.
d. is the membrane glycoprotein and associated antigen presented to B-cells.
e. none of these.
93
487
a. the release of inteferon.
b. the presence of macrophages.
c. the presence of cytotoxic cells.
d. two of these.
e. all of these.
487
since
a. only a small fraction of the genome encodes proteins involved in cell cycle
regulation, so the probability of mutation of these genes is low.
b. generally multiple mutations are required to turn a normal cell into a cancer cell.
c. immune surveillance results in nascent cancer cells being eliminated by cytotoxic T-
cells.
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
488
Cortisol, in turn,
a. mobilizes amino acids.
b. mobilizes energy reserves and enhances immune function by making more energy
available.
c. suppresses immune function.
d. mobilize energy reserves and suppress immune function.
e. does all of these.
460,
490
a. Down syndrome cell-adhesion molecule receptors.
b. amoebocytes.
c. Toll receptors.
d. drosomycins.
e. two of these.
489
the following observations suggest that this is NOT the case?
a. Phenoloxidase activity enables hemocytes to form an impermeable wall of melanin
around an infecting pathogen.
b. Invertebrate immune cells secrete an IL-1 like compound.
c. Invertebrates produce lectins, which coat bacterial cells, priming them for
phagocytosis.
d. Copepods become resistant to tapeworms after an initial exposure.
e. None of these.
94
B. True or False
489 mammals have been on earth.
458
462 vertebrates.
464
466
467
468 release of histamine.
470 invertebrates.
474 microorganisms.
482 stimulate B cells.
C. Matching (correct answers are aligned with each number; e.g., #1 matches with letter a)
95
D. Essay
Page No.
response involving the nervous system is involved in a negative feedback loop associated
with immune function.
similarities they have with vertebrate immunity.
exposure to a pathogen as opposed to exposure to a pathogen via vaccination. What
effect does this have on long-term immunity?
the extracellular fluid as opposed to after a virus has entered a cell.
responses.

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