Chapter 1 The Study American government multiple Choice1 The Financial

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
American Government: Institutions and Policies-- 14th Edition 14th Edition
Authors
James Q. Wilson, John J. DiIulio Jr., Meena Bose
CHAPTER 1
The Study of American
Government
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The financial position of the state and national governments under the Articles of Confederation could
be best described as
a.
sound, strong, and based on a large surplus of revenue.
b.
sound, strong, but uncertain around the edges.
c.
uniformly stable at the state level, but the national government struggled with debt.
d.
stable at the national level with little cause for concern in any of the states.
e.
growing debt at the national level and several states with financial crises.
2. Which of the following expressed sincere concern that ratification of the Constitution would result in
“an immense increase in taxes”?
a.
James Madison
b.
Alexander Hamilton
c.
George Washington
d.
Patrick Henry
e.
John Jay
3. The federal budget initially opposed for 2014 called for almost __________ trillion dollars
in spending.
a.
1
b.
2
c.
4
d.
5
e.
7
4. The textbook refers to the activity by which an issue is agitated or settled as _________.
a.
government
b.
policy
c.
politics
d.
participation
e.
None of the above is true.
2 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government
5. Individuals have power when they are able to
a.
get elected to office.
b.
be present at behind-the-scenes political meetings.
c.
serve their fellow human beings.
d.
get others to do what they want them to do.
e.
vote without being influenced by outside forces.
6. The text notes a tendency for issues that once were _________ to become __________.
a.
simple; complicated
b.
public; secret
c.
social; political
d.
private; public
e.
economic; social
7. By authority, the authors mean
a.
the right to use power.
b.
the manner in which power is spread.
c.
the use of power for good causes.
d.
the desire to have power.
e.
the desire to give power to others.
8. Formal authority refers to a right to exercise power that is derived from a(n)
a.
official ceremony.
b.
majority vote.
c.
consensus.
d.
popular consensus.
e.
governmental office.
9. Today, a primary source of legitimate political authority in the United States is the
a.
Bill of Rights.
b.
will of the people.
c.
U.S. Constitution.
d.
concept of civil liberty.
e.
notion of civil rights.
10. In the United States, a person is said to have __________ if he or she act in a certain way that is
conferred by a law or by a state or national constitution.
a.
political authority
b.
political control
c.
political power
d.
political influence
e.
political clout
11. The text suggests that in the United States, no government at any level would be considered legitimate
if it were not in some sense _____.
a.
democratic
b.
altruistic
c.
humanitarian
d.
elitist
e.
aristocratic
12. At the time of the Constitutional Convention, the view that a democratic government was
desirable was
a.
already waning.
b.
close to unanimous.
c.
beyond debate.
d.
held by the elite only.
e.
far from unanimous.
13. This large federal program is projected to be more than $1 trillion by 2022.
a.
Medicare
b.
Medicaid
c.
Social Security
d.
Defense
e.
Supplemental Social Security Income (SSI)
14. In 1787, as the Constitution was being debated, __________ worried that the new government he
helped create might be too democratic, while __________ who refused to sign the Constitution,
worried that it was not democratic enough.
a.
John Adams; James Madison
b.
George Washington; George Mason
c.
Alexander Hamilton; George Mason
d.
Thomas Jefferson; Alexander Hamilton
e.
Patrick Henry; Samuel Adams
4 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government
15. For representative democracy to work
a.
there must be an opportunity for genuine competition of leadership.
b.
individuals and parties must be free to run for office.
c.
there needs to be freedom of speech and press.
d.
voters must perceive that a meaningful choice exists.
e.
All of the above are true.
16. How did Aristotle define democracy?
a.
Rule of the few
b.
Rule of the one
c.
Rule of the powerful
d.
Rule of the many
e.
Rule of the intelligent
17. The term participatory democracy applies most accurately to which of the following societies?
a.
Greece in the fourth century B.C.
b.
Modern China
c.
The United States since 1787
d.
The Soviet Union between 1917 and 1990
e.
The southeastern United States before the Civil War
18. The Greek city-state, or polis, extended the right to vote to everyone EXCEPT
a.
slaves.
b.
women.
c.
minors.
d.
those without property.
e.
All of the above are true.
19. In our political system, Aristotle’s ideal of direct democracy has been most closely approximated by
the
a.
AFL-CIO.
b.
U.S. House of Representatives.
c.
New England town meeting.
d.
Constitutional Convention.
e.
southeastern United States before the Civil War.
20. In this type of political meeting, the adult citizens of a community gather in a common area to vote
directly on all major issues and expenditures of the town.
a.
A meeting of the Board of Alderman
b.
A meeting of City Council
c.
A New England town meeting
d.
A meeting of the general assembly
e.
A meeting of the forum
21. Democracy was defined as the competitive struggle for people’s votes by
a.
Joseph Stalin.
b.
Joseph Schumpeter.
c.
Max Weber.
d.
Karl Marx.
e.
Søren Kierkegaard.
22. Representative democracy allows individuals to gain political power through
a.
media campaigns.
b.
quadrennial elections.
c.
nonpartisan elections.
d.
reciprocal elections.
e.
competitive elections.
23. Representative democracy is sometimes disapprovingly referred to as the _________ theory
of democracy.
a.
limited
b.
aristocratic
c.
economic
d.
authoritarian
e.
elite
24. Direct democracy is impractical because
a.
citizens do not have enough time.
b.
citizens do not have enough information or policy expertise.
c.
citizens lack the energy to participate the required amount.
d.
citizens lack the interest to be so involved in politics.
e.
All of the above are true.
25. The Framers’ concerns about direct democracy are well illustrated by the fact that the Constitution
a.
uses the word democracy only once, in the Preamble.
b.
uses the word democracy only in reference to Congress.
c.
does not feature the word democracy at all.
d.
uses only the word democratic.
e.
frequently uses the word democracy, but never in reference to the enumeration of a
formal power.
26. When the Framers of the Constitution wrote “republican form of government,” they were referring to
a.
direct democracy.
b.
democratic centralism.
c.
mob rule.
d.
town meetings.
e.
representative democracy.
27. All of the following are requirements for representative democracy EXCEPT
a.
there must be opportunity for genuine leadership competition.
b.
individuals and parties must be able to run for office.
c.
voters must perceive that a meaningful choice exists.
d.
political resources must be distributed in a roughly equal manner.
e.
communication through the press, meetings, and the internet or speech must be free.
28. One distinctive feature of many European democracies is that very few offices are
a.
independent.
b.
effective.
c.
elective.
d.
active.
e.
efficient.
29. A modern example of direct democracy would be
a.
citizens electing local boards to make decisions.
b.
citizens running for political office.
c.
citizens affected by some program participating in its formulation.
d.
citizens writing elected officials to express opinions on policy.
e.
citizens working for politicians.
30. Democracy in the United States is distinguished from many European democracies by the fact that in
the United States,
a.
many more offices are elective.
b.
more campaign money comes from public sources.
c.
more people participate in the electoral process.
d.
the government plays a more active role in elections.
e.
the government frequently changes hands.
31. Variants of direct democracy include programs of citizen participation and
a.
interest group cooperation.
b.
guerrilla warfare.
c.
competitive elections.
d.
political party centralism.
e.
community control.
32. In a referendum, citizens express their opinions about issues by means of
a.
letters.
b.
the ballot.
c.
town meetings.
d.
petitions.
e.
Both A and D are true.
33. Which statement best reflects the views of the Framers of the Constitution?
a.
Elected officials should register majority sentiments.
b.
The will of the people was not synonymous with the public good.
c.
The views of the people are trustworthy because most are informed and can make
reasonable choices.
d.
A government should be able to do a great deal of good as quickly and as efficiently as
possible.
e.
Majority opinion should be irrelevant to the policymaking process.
34. The author cites the early presidential administrations, the Civil War, and the New Deal as examples
of struggles over
a.
what constitutes legitimate authority.
b.
who shall govern.
c.
who gets what, when, and how.
d.
when progress is possible.
e.
how power is accumulated.
35. Elite theory is NOT based on the following premise.
a.
Majoritarian politics is not always controlling.
b.
When majoritarian politics is not controlling, policy is likely to be shaped by those who go
to the trouble to be active participants in politics.
c.
In general, the number of active participants in politics will be small (relative to the total
number of potential participants).
d.
Despite their small numbers, those who are active participants in politics generally reflect
the types of people in the general population and the viewpoints of most citizens.
e.
The actual distribution of power, even in a democracy, will depend importantly on the
composition of the political elites.
36. Karl Marx is associated with the view that elites reflect a(n)
a.
dominant social class.
b.
group of business, military, labor-union, and elected officials.
c.
array of appointed bureaucrats.
d.
large number of organized interests.
e.
flexible alliance of religious and cultural leaders.
37. Karl Marx argued that governments were dominated by business owners, who he called
“__________”, until a revolution replaced them with rule by laborers, who he called “__________”.
a.
proletariat; bourgeoisie
b.
bourgeoisie; proletariat
c.
power elite; middle class
d.
working class; lower class
e.
laborites; working class
38. The sociologist __________ argued that American democracy is dominated by a small “power elite.”
a.
C. Wright Mills
b.
Karl Marx
c.
David B. Truman
d.
Max Weber
e.
Samuel P. Huntington
39. The bureaucratic view of political elites, which argues that appointed officials dominate government,
is associated with
a.
Karl Marx.
b.
C. Wright Mills.
c.
Max Weber.
d.
David B. Truman.
e.
Robert Dahl.
40. Today, the U.S. federal income tax takes an average of __________ of taxpayers’ income.
a.
10 percent
b.
15 percent
c.
21 percent
d.
43 percent
e.
45 percent
41. Most people holding national political office are
a.
middle class.
b.
middle age.
c.
males.
d.
Protestant.
e.
All of the above are true.
42. The pluralist view of power focuses on
a.
a dominant social class.
b.
a group of business, military, labor-union, and elected officials.
c.
an array of appointed bureaucrats.
d.
a large number of governmental interests and organized interests.
e.
a flexible alliance of religious and cultural leaders.
43. The view that morally impassioned elites drive important political changes is associated with
a.
Karl Marx.
b.
Max Weber.
c.
Samuel P. Huntington.
d.
Robert Dahl.
e.
David B. Truman.
44. Regarding the role of self-interest in the positions that people take on important issues, it is safest to
say that
a.
the self-interest of individuals is usually a complete guide to their actions.
b.
economic self-interest may be important but is usually not the only guide to
people’s actions.
c.
organizational self-interest rather than economic self-interest is usually the best guide to
people’s actions.
d.
political preferences can be predicted invariably by knowing an individual’s economic or
organizational position.
e.
self-interest is rarely an important factor in understanding political attitudes and behavior.
45. In 1935, ____ of American families paid no federal income tax.
a.
4 percent
b.
90 percent
c.
96 percent
d.
80 percent
e.
1 percent
46. Today, most people holding national political office are all of the following EXCEPT
a.
upper-class.
b.
males.
c.
white.
d.
middle-class.
e.
Protestants
47. Of the following, which one affects the political agenda?
a.
Shared political values
b.
The weight of custom and tradition
c.
The impact of events
d.
Changes in the way political elites think
e.
All of the above are true.
48. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a.
During the 1920s, it was widely assumed that the federal government would play a small
role in our lives.
b.
From the 1930s to the 1970s, it was generally believed that the federal government should
try to solve social and economic problems.
c.
Interest group politics often produces decisions about which the public is uniformed.
d.
No simple theory of politics is likely to explain both the growth and cutback of
federal power.
e.
None of the above is true.
49. What effect does the national media most likely have on the political agenda?
a.
Publicize issues by giving them most attention
b.
Influence politicians into voting a particular way
c.
Produce stories that force politicians to act
d.
The size and power demands act
e.
None of the above is true.
50. When the cost and benefits of a policy are widely distributed, they are
a.
limited to a relatively small number of citizens.
b.
spread over many, most, or even all citizens.
c.
enjoyed by only one demographic.
d.
limited to one geographic region.
e.
spread over a number of states.
51. When the cost and benefits of a policy are narrowly concentrated, they are
a.
limited to a relatively small number of citizens.
b.
spread over many, most, or even all citizens.
c.
enjoyed by many demographics.
d.
limited a geographic region.
e.
spread over a number of states.
52. A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays
a.
interest group politics.
b.
majoritarian politics.
c.
client politics.
d.
entrepreneurial politics.
e.
logrolling politics.
53. Under what circumstances would majoritarian politics normally not be effective?
a.
When a political leader feels sharply constrained by what most people want
b.
When an issue is sufficiently important to command the attention of most citizens
c.
When an issue is too complicated or technical for most citizens to understand
d.
When an issue is sufficiently feasible so that what citizens want done can in fact be done
e.
All of the above are true.
54. A city council representative faces an important vote on how much, if any, money to spend on a new
school. The representative relies on a poll of her constituents to make a decision. This is in keeping
with the form of politics known as
a.
participatory politics.
b.
majoritarian politics.
c.
pluralist politics.
d.
elitist politics.
e.
reciprocal politics.
55. A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays.
a.
Interest group politics
b.
Majoritarian politics
c.
Client politics
d.
Entrepreneurial politics
e.
Logrolling politics
56. __________ is a policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays.
a.
Interest group politics
b.
Majoritarian politics
c.
Client politics
d.
Entrepreneurial politics
e.
Logrolling politics
57. __________ is a policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays.
a.
Interest group politics
b.
Majoritarian politics
c.
Client politics
d.
Entrepreneurial politics
e.
Logrolling politics
58. Pork-barrel legislation is an example of this type of politics.
a.
Interest group politics
b.
Majoritarian politics
c.
Client politics
d.
Entrepreneurial politics
e.
None of the above is true.