CAS PY 41889

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology 12th Edition
Authors
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Which of the following scenarios would best indicate that a thrust fault is present at a
location?
A) The hanging wall of the fault has slipped down.
B) Two parts of the same rock have been horizontally displaced by 20 feet.
C) Cambrian-aged rocks have been shoved on top of Jurassic-aged rocks.
D) The crust has lengthened, allowing a graben to slip down and create a pull-apart
basin.
How will strike and dip marks be oriented on the geologic map of a nonplunging
syncline?
A) Parallel dips with strikes pointing away from the center of the fold
B) Strikes ringing the fold with the dips pointing toward the center
C) Strikes intersecting, but no dips because of horizontal layering
D) Parallel strikes with dips pointing toward from the center of the fold
Match the coastal term to the correct definition.
A) Boundary that marks the seaward edge of the coast
B) Area of ocean-related features from the water inland
C) Between low-tide mark and where waves break at low tide
D) Area from lowest tide level to highest elevation affected by storm waves
1. Shore
2. Coast
3. Nearshore
4. Coastline
What kind of temperature and pressure conditions will exist in a subduction zone
metamorphic environment?
A) Low temperature and low pressure
B) Low temperature and high pressure
C) High temperature and low pressure
D) High temperature and high pressure
Based on the information visible, what kind of volcano is this?
A) Shield volcano
B) Composite cone
C) Cinder cone
Although many areas of the continental shelves are relatively featureless, there are
some locations on the shelves that have received extensive glacial deposits and
significant dissection by streams. How would this have been possible?
A) Glaciers and streams were powerful enough to shape the shelf underwater.
B) The shelves were once above sea level but have since dropped below sea level due to
tectonic activity.
C) The sea level dropped during the last glacial episode because water was stored in
large ice sheets, exposing the shelves.
D) As the continents collided in the past, the shelves were lifted above sea level and
became exposed to the elements.
When olivine is undergoing a mineral phase change due to pressure, what mineral will
it form?
A) Perovskite
B) Quartz
C) Pyroxene
D) Spinel
What event was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs?
A) Meteorite impact in the Yucatan Peninsula
B) Eruptions of the Siberian Traps
C) Assembly of Pangaea
D) Rise of flowering plants
Which tectonic boundary would have many thrust faults associated with it?
A) Convergent
B) Divergent
C) Transform
________ collection and ________ collection are used to harness solar energy for
consumption.
A) Magnetic; hydraulic
B) Human; mechanical
C) Passive; active
D) Aquatic; filtration
Label the atomic properties of carbon as they would be found on the periodic table.
1. A
2. B
3. C
A) Atomic mass
B) Atomic symbol
C) Atomic number
Assume the image above is in southern Arizona and rather than seeing patches of snow,
you are seeing a desert. Which weathering process would you then assume is
responsible for material A?
A) Salt crystal growth
B) Hydrolysis
C) Frost wedging
D) Exfoliation
The ________ describes the path water takes as it moves between the land, the ocean,
and the atmosphere.
A) Hydrologic Cycle
B) Oxygen Cycle
C) Rock Cycle
D) Matter State Cycle
Which of the following best explains why some fault-block mountains have an elevated
topography?
A) Thinning of the lithosphere resulted in upwelling of hot mantle rock and greater
lithospheric buoyancy
B) Large volumes of rock were thrust on top of the area
C) Flood basalts stacked up in the region
D) Subduction folded and uplifted the mountain ranges to extensive heights
What are the two groups of feldspar minerals called?
A) Microcline and orthoclase
B) Potassium feldspar and plagioclase
C) Sodium and calcium
D) Albite and anorthite
Which minerals are the main constituents in most sedimentary rocks?
A) Calcite and silica
B) Micas and feldspars
C) Orthoclase and plagioclase
D) Quartz and clay minerals
Compaction will be the most significant lithification process for which of the following
rocks?
A) Conglomerate
B) Sandstone
C) Arkose
D) Shale
Which of the following describes the events of the Acadian Orogeny?
A) Closing of the marginal sea caused a volcanic arc to be thrust over the continent
B) North America collided with a microcontinent as the marginal sea continued to close
C) The sea along North America closed completely as Africa collided with North
America
D) The rifting of Pangaea opened the modern Atlantic Ocean
According to research, how high has sea level risen since 1870?
A) 7 cm
B) 10 cm
C) 1 cm
D) 25 cm
Match the type of flood with the correct definition.
A) Seasonal Floods
B) Artificial containment structures fail
C) Floods with high precipitation in a short time
D) Frozen material creates a temporary dam on a thawing river
1. Ice-Jam Floods
2. Dam-Failure Floods
3. Regional Floods
4. Flash Floods
A ________ is a circular fold where the youngest layers are in the middle and the oldest
layers are on the outside.
A) syncline
B) monocline
C) dome
D) basin
The first primitive organisms on Earth came into existence approximately ________
years ago.
A) 10,000
B) 550 million
C) 3.8 billion
D) 4.6 billion
Which kind of stress (confining pressure or differential stress) is responsible for
creating the texture visible in this rock?
A) Confining pressure
B) Differential stress
Match the earthquake with the type of fault or plate boundary that generated it. (Note:
Some choices may be used more than once.)
A) Transform boundary
B) Convergent boundary
C) Intraplate fault
1. Japan (2011)
2. Loma Prieta, California (1989)
3. New Madrid, Missouri (1811-1812)
4. Turkey (North Anatolian Fault, 1999)
5. Charleston, South Carolina (1886)
Which of the following locations is composed largely of accreted terranes?
A) Illinois
B) Hawaii
C) California
D) Colorado
Which would be the most likely location for a rockslide to occur?
A) Rock cliff with no fractures or voids
B) Inclined strata with joints and fractures parallel to the slope face.
C) A soil-covered slope with a stream flowing at the base
D) Bottom of a stream valley with a highly meandering stream
Which of the following is the definition of a scientific theory?
A) The gathering of data through observations
B) A tentative explanation used to explain observed activities
C) A well-tested and widely accepted view that explains observable facts
D) An educated guess
________ is the largest known asteroid.
A) Pluto
B) Eris
C) Ceres
D) Andromeda
Match the layer of the atmosphere with the correct description.
A) The layer of the atmosphere with the greatest amount of air molecules. Temperatures
decrease from bottom to top
B) The second layer of the atmosphere where temperatures gradually increase from
bottom to top
C) The third layer of the atmosphere where the coldest temperatures are found
D) The outermost layer of the atmosphere where temperatures are extremely high due
to solar radiation
1. Stratosphere
2. Troposphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere
Which part of a glacier is responsible for abrasion and plucking?
A) Basal sliding zone
B) Glacial interior
C) Terminus
D) Brittle surface zone
Which of the following materials would make the best aquitard?
A) Gravel
B) Sandstone
C) Clay
D) Conglomerate
How does the process and rate seafloor spreading affect sea level?
How can plate tectonics help explain the existence of fossil marine organisms in rocks
found on top of compressional mountains?
What is the difference between a floodplain and a stream terrace?
A dam is constructed on the Crymea River. Explain how this will affect the river and
the work that the river performs both upstream as well as downstream.
The Mississippi River currently makes up the western boundary of the state of Illinois.
However, the Ancient Mississippi River Valley once flowed through the center of the
state, cutting off one-quarter of the state from its modern boundaries. How did the
Mississippi River shift from its ancestral location to its present one? How did it end up
staying in its current location? Explain.
The Appalachian Mountains were formed when the North American continent collided
with Africa to form the supercontinent Pangaea over 250 million years ago. What kind
of tectonic boundary existed here? What sort of structural features would you expect to
find in this region?
What is the difference between a resource and a reserve?
How will the water vapor in magma reduce the viscosity of the magma?
What are sunspots? How can sunspots affect the climate on Earth?
Discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of wind energy.
Compare and contrast how the formation of biochemical sediments differs from the
formation of inorganic sediments. (Note: The term inorganic sediments refers to those
formed in chemical sedimentary rocks.)
Explain the difference in orientation between a nonplunging anticline and a plunging
anticline.
Compare and contrast reptiles and mammals. Why were mammals able to occupy more
diverse habitats than reptiles could?
The River Loop Trail at Black Hawk State Historic Site in Rock Island, Illinois, has
exposures revealing nearly 130 million years of geologic history. At the base of the hill
is Devonian-aged limestone containing brachiopods and bryozoans. Above the
limestone is Pennsylvanian-aged shale, with an unconformity between the two. The
black shale is rich with fossils of ferns and marsh grasses. Directly on top of the shale is
Pennsylvanian-aged sandstone. Using the geologic materials described, determine the
environment of deposition for each unit. How has the overall environment changed
from the Devonian to the end of the Pennsylvanian?
What are three methods a stream can use to erode bedrock?

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