What is a goal common to both the Pendleton Act and the Hatch Act?
a. reducing the exercise of administrative discretion
b. reducing the influence of partisan politics on the federal bureaucracy.
c. increasing presidential control of the federal bureaucracy
d. increase congressional control of the federal bureaucracy
e. streamlining the policy implementation process
What is the status of affirmative action in college admissions after the Supreme Court
decisions in the two cases involving the University of Michigan, Gratz v. Bollinger
(2003) and Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)?
a. Affirmative action policies are generally permissible, but they cannot involve
race-based quotas or numerical point systems.
b. Affirmative action policies are assumed to be unconstitutional unless the university
can demonstrate the need to promote racial tolerance.
c. Affirmative action policies are assumed to be constitutional unless an applicant can
demonstrate that race affected the admissions decision.
d. Affirmative action policies must ensure that all racial and ethnic groups are
represented in accordance with the population of the nation as a whole.
e. All forms of affirmative action are unconstitutional because they unfairly favor some
people over others based on the color of their skin.