Type
Quiz
Book Title
Media Essentials 4th Edition
ISBN 13
978-1319059477

978-1319059477 Test Bank Chapter 7

June 16, 2020
Page 1
1.
Who opened the first public movie theater in France in 1896?
A)
Auguste Lumière
B)
Adolph Zukor
C)
Georges Méliès
D)
Louis Lumière
2.
American filmmaker Edwin S. Porter (maker of The Life of an American Fireman)
A)
shot narrative scenes out of order.
B)
made what is considered America's first narrative film.
C)
used the first recorded close-up in U.S. narrative film history.
D)
All options are correct.
3.
Nickelodeons were _____.
A)
turn-of-the-twentieth-century theaters dedicated to screening children's films
B)
the first fancy downtown movie palaces, located mainly in business centers
C)
a type of movie theater that often consisted of converted storefronts redecorated to
mimic vaudeville theaters
D)
No option is correct.
4.
Which of the following was not one of the original “Big Five” studios that once
dominated the film business?
A)
MGM
B)
Warner Brothers
C)
Disney
D)
Paramount
5.
In an early attempt to dominate the film industry, inventor Thomas Edison formed
A)
the Motion Picture Monopoly of America.
B)
the Edison Oligopoly Company.
C)
Paramount Studios.
D)
the Motion Picture Patents Company.
6.
Adolph Zukor formed the Famous Players Company in 1912 to
A)
give young actors a start in movies.
B)
exert control over movie production.
C)
serve as an agent for established actors.
D)
make exceptional movies with the best directors available.
Page 2
7.
After Edison, Adolph Zukor of Paramount tried to monopolize the film industry by
controlling
A)
production.
B)
distribution.
C)
exhibition.
D)
All options are correct.
8.
Which of the following is not an element of vertical integration in the movie industry?
A)
Production
B)
Syndication
C)
Distribution
D)
Exhibition
9.
Who launched the company United Artists?
A)
Mary Pickford
B)
Douglas Fairbanks
C)
Charlie Chaplin
D)
All options are correct.
10.
Under the studio system
A)
actors were independent contractors who could work for any studio.
B)
movies were made on an assembly line basis.
C)
the studios had no control over the private lives of their creative talent.
D)
producers were hired to direct the pictures.
11.
To gain access to popular films, early theater owners and exhibitors had to agree to rent
new or marginal films featuring no stars. This distribution strategy was called
A)
international distribution.
B)
block booking.
C)
option time.
D)
Zukor's law.
12.
Block booking was a studio
A)
production technique that doubled up on scripts.
B)
distribution strategy that enabled studios to test market up-and-coming stars at little
financial risk.
C)
exhibition technique that used B-roll schedules to limit lengths of films.
D)
business ploy that “doctored” the accounting books.
Page 3
13.
_____ were built in the early 1900s to draw members of the middle and upper-middle
classes to the movies.
A)
Small neighborhood theaters
B)
Downtown first-run theaters
C)
Multiplexes in shopping malls
D)
Movie palaces
14.
Which film was the first successful talking motion picture?
A)
The Great Train Robbery
B)
The Singing Fool
C)
Birth of a Nation
D)
The Jazz Singer
15.
_____ demonstrated the government's attempts at breaking up monopolies within the
film industry.
A)
Fin-syn
B)
The Paramount decision
C)
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
D)
HUAC
16.
The drop in movie attendance that occurred after World War II can be attributed to
A)
competition from radio.
B)
the population shift to the suburbs.
C)
the Paramount decision.
D)
All options are correct.
17.
In an effort to compete with television in the 1950s, the movie studios began making
A)
big-budget family films.
B)
documentaries.
C)
X-rated adult movies.
D)
films that dealt with social problems.
18.
Which of the following did not have an effect on Hollywood in the postwar era (late
1940s, 1950s)?
A)
The rise of nickelodeons
B)
The Paramount decision
C)
The mass egress to the suburbs
D)
Television
Page 4
19.
How did Hollywood adapt to the development of home entertainment?
A)
By developing small-budget films better suited to TV
B)
By investing in home entertainment technology
C)
By urging government to restrict DVD distribution
D)
By developing a new market for renting and selling movies
20.
Which of these is not a reason U.S. film viewing decreased during the 1950s
A)
Television cornered the family market
B)
Innovations like Technicolor were not enough to lure people downtown
C)
Americans chose to spend their money on material goods rather than movie tickets
D)
The introduction of cable television
21.
_____ generate more revenue than domestic box-office income for major studios.
A)
DVD/video sales and rentals
B)
Premium cable and pay-per-view sales
C)
Distribution in international markets
D)
Product placements
22.
Thomas Edison was the first person who theorized about the possibility of motion
pictures.
A)
True
B)
False
23.
The first kinetoscope motion pictures were watched by only one person at a time.
A)
True
B)
False
24.
The first public showing of Edison's kinetoscope projector system was in a Paris café in
December 1895 where hundreds of viewers saw images on a large screen.
A)
True
B)
False
25.
Georges Méliès made the first western, The Great Train Robbery.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 5
26.
Early silent films flourished in part because they transcended language.
A)
True
B)
False
27.
One of the earliest types of movie theaters were called nickelodeons, a name that
indicated the cost of admission.
A)
True
B)
False
28.
An oligopoly exists when a few companies control an industry.
A)
True
B)
False
29.
The Motion Picture Patents Company was established in 1908 to share film technology
with independent filmmakers.
A)
True
B)
False
30.
Marilyn Monroe became known as “America's Sweetheart” after her work with the
Famous Players Film Company shortly after 1912.
A)
True
B)
False
31.
American studios were able to gain control of the world film industry during World War
I.
A)
True
B)
False
32.
Movie studios in the United States still practice block booking and require that theaters
accept lesser films so as to get blockbuster movies.
A)
True
B)
False
33.
Movie palaces looked beautiful on the outside, but were often very shabby on the inside.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 6
34.
Birth of a Nation (1915) was the first feature-length film produced in the United States.
A)
True
B)
False
35.
The Singing Fool was the first real breakthrough for talkies.
A)
True
B)
False
36.
The first sound movie, The Jazz Singer, was basically a silent film with a few spoken
words.
A)
True
B)
False
37.
In scriptwriting terminology, the “discourse” is how the story is told.
A)
True
B)
False
38.
Examples of genres include comedy, drama, romance, and action/adventure.
A)
True
B)
False
39.
Film noir movies are notable for their bright lighting, lush sets, and upbeat story lines.
A)
True
B)
False
40.
Grouping films by genre allows the movie industry to achieve both product
standardization and differentiation.
A)
True
B)
False
41.
Hollywood's primary “authors” are scriptwriters.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 7
42.
Successful film directors develop a particular cinematic style or interest in specific
topics.
A)
True
B)
False
43.
All commercial movies made in the world are now produced and shot in Hollywood.
A)
True
B)
False
44.
American audiences refuse to watch foreign films.
A)
True
B)
False
45.
Today, the world's largest film industry is in India, out of the so-called Bombaywood.
A)
True
B)
False
46.
Cinema verité is a style of documentary filmmaking that closely resembles a big-budget,
high-gloss Hollywood feature.
A)
True
B)
False
47.
Documentaries generally avoid controversial or unpopular subject matter.
A)
True
B)
False
48.
The government's 1948 order forcing the major studios to sell their theaters effectively
ended their control of the movie industry.
A)
True
B)
False
49.
The Paramount decision ended the dominance of the major studios over the commercial
film industry.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 8
50.
The Motion Picture Production Code was established in the 1960s to rate movies for
age-appropriate content.
A)
True
B)
False
51.
The major film studios were able to dominate movie exhibition in the United States by
acquiring all the country's drive-in theaters.
A)
True
B)
False
52.
Domestic box-office income is still the largest single source of revenue for a typical
feature film.
A)
True
B)
False
53.
Despite the popularity of DVDs, theme parks, and soundtrack CDs, the Hollywood
studio system continues to make money.
A)
True
B)
False
54.
The film industry makes more money today from first-run releases in movie theaters
than from home DVD/video releases.
A)
True
B)
False
55.
International box-office gross revenues are almost double the U.S. and Canadian
box-office receipts.
A)
True
B)
False
56.
Film studios have generally resisted making product placement deals for creative
reasons.
A)
True
B)
False
57.
Six studios dominate the U.S. film business.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 9
58.
Because of high equipment and operating costs, digital technology is not expected to
benefit independent filmmakers for many years.
A)
True
B)
False
59.
A “consensus narrative” is a type of movie that seeks a small, select niche audience.
A)
True
B)
False
60.
_____ is a transparent and pliable film that can hold a coating of chemicals sensitive to
light.
61.
The _____ was an early movie camera developed by Thomas Edison (with the help of
his assistant, William Kennedy Dickson) in the late 1800s.
62.
The _____ was an early film projection system that that required individual viewers to
look through a small hole to see images moving on a tiny plate.
63.
In 1902, Edwin S. Porter made America's first narrative film, The Life of an American
_____.
64.
Movie theater facilities with as many as fourteen or more screens are called _____.
65.
_____ are weekly ten-minute magazine-style compilations of filmed news events from
around the world.
66.
Movies with sound, called _____, began to appear in 1927.
67.
Why were early silent films popular?
68.
What contribution did nickelodeons make to film history? Why did they eventually
disappear?
Page 10
69.
What is vertical integration?
70.
Why did Hollywood become the center of American film production?
71.
Describe the three major stylistic or formal elements that defined the film style known
as Hollywood style.
72.
Describe what a genre is and name three popular film genres.
73.
Why did the particular structure in film called the classic Hollywood narrative become
so dominant in moviemaking?
74.
What ended the Golden Age of the Hollywood film studios?
75.
The movie industry used to make most of its money from box-office revenues. Explain
why that is no longer the case.
76.
Describe (using as much detail as possible) six main revenue sources used by the movie
industry today.
77.
How is the movie industry adapting to the digital age?
78.
What do you think about the significant role that U.S. movies play in global culture?
Should changes be made? Explain.
Answer Key
1.
C
2.
D
Page 12
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
4. the electronic era really took off with the arrival of what? a) radio b) television c) the internet d) the telegraph 6. what is one main meaning of the term media convergence? a) the technological merging of content across different media channels, such as songs being available on cell phones b) the appropriation of american products by foreign advertisers c) the diversification of various media holdings—such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and internet access—into separate companies d) all options are correct. page 1 8. the linear communication model can be criticized on the grounds that a) it assumes that culture is hierarchical. b) it asserts that audiences create their own meanings from messages sent. c) it does not usually move messages smoothly from a sender at point a to a receiver at point z. d) it conforms too closely to the eps model. 13. a manuscript culture existed between 1000 bce and the mid-fifteenth century and manuscripts were commissioned by members of the ruling classes. a) true b) false 14. the printing press fostered the rise of tribal storytellers. a) true b) false 15. gutenberg played an active role in the transition from oral to written culture. a) true b) false 16. with the coming of the printing press, the printed newspaper became the first mass-marketed product in history. a) true b) false 17. the computer was the first electronic innovation. a) true b) false 18. media convergence is considered a characteristic of the digital turn. a) true b) false 19. according to the textbook, media convergence has two very different meanings. a) true b) false 20. researchers do not all agree on whether watching violent tv shows makes viewers more likely to commit violent acts than not watching such tv shows. a) true b) false page 3 21. the senders of messages often have very little control over how their messages will be decoded. a) true b) false 22. according to the textbook, as cultural forms, the media help us make sense of daily life and articulate our values. a) true b) false 23. the cultural model recognizes that individuals assign diverse meanings to messages depending on personal characteristics, such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, occupation, and religious beliefs. a) true b) false 25. high culture is the same as popular culture. a) true b) false 27. the progressive era is another name for the postmodern period. a) true b) false 28. postmodern cultural values include working efficiently and believing in a rational order. a) true b) false page 4 29. content analysis is a tool of the social scientific approach. a) true b) false 30. in the textbook's comparison of two types of research about cancer news coverage, the social scientific approach focused on interpretation of the meanings of the media stories. a) true b) false 31. the critical process consists of describing, analyzing, interpreting, evaluating, and engaging with mass media. a) true b) false 32. those who consult research to acquire media literacy should concentrate on either cultural studies or social scientific studies. a) true b) false 3. many books from the middle ages were called illuminated manuscripts because they were _____. a) elaborately decorated with colorful illustrations b) printed using reflective ink c) burned in castle fireplaces to honor god d) read aloud in the town square by scholars who explained, or illuminated, the text 5. the right to use the contents of a book in another form, such as a mass market paperback or movie script, is called _____. a) royalties b) residuals c) subsidiary rights d) an advance 6. the division of the book industry that makes the most money is _____. a) trade books b) textbooks c) religious books d) mass market paperbacks page 1 8. the best-selling book of all time is _____. a) various versions of the bible b) better homes and gardens cookbook c) baby and child care by dr. benjamin spock d) peyton place by grace metalious 9. in 2015, the greatest estimated u.s. book revenue was generated by which market? a) pre-k–12 education b) trade books c) religious books d) professional books 10. numerous books have become best-sellers after they were selected for ____. a) inside edition b) oprah's book club c) c-span's booknotes program d) 20/20 11. many older books are deteriorating because _____. a) there is too much humidity in the library buildings b) the ink used in printing the books is eating through the paper c) the glue holding the books together is drying out d) the books were printed on acid-based paper 12. for hundreds of years, books were the only mass medium. a) true b) false 15. pulp fiction was another name for the popular paperbacks and dime novels of the late 1800s. a) true b) false 16. book publishing is dominated by a handful of giant corporations. a) true b) false 17. with the rise of electronic and digital publishing, book formats have expanded beyond print. a) true b) false 18. the publishing industry produces titles in a wide variety of categories. a) true b) false 19. trade books refers to the category of books sold to the general reader. a) true b) false 20. professional books are sold mostly through mail order, the internet, or sales representatives knowledgeable about the various subject areas. a) true b) false 23. sales of religious books have dropped substantially over the past twenty years. a) true b) false 24. university presses often publish scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in specialized areas. a) true b) false 25. amazon introduced an e-book reader—the kindle—in 2007. a) true b) false 26. brick-and-mortar stores include traditional bookstores, department stores, drugstores, used-book stores, and toy stores. a) true b) false 27. when a book becomes a movie or a television program, book sales soar. a) true b) false 28. in the publishing industry, advance money is an up-front payment to an author that's subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales. a) true b) false 29. distribution costs include maintaining the inventory of books to be sold and fulfilling orders (shipping books to commercial outlets or college bookstores). a) true b) false page 4 3. penny press newspapers _____. a) favored human-interest stories b) relied on subsidies from political parties c) catered to upper-class readers d) were sold exclusively by subscription 10. a newshole is _____. a) the portion of the newspaper dedicated to commercials b) nonnews stories that blur the line between entertainment and hard news c) the space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed d) stories not covered by a particular newspaper because of a reporter shortage 11. the majority of large daily papers today devote as much as one-half to two-thirds of their pages to _____. a) print subscriptions b) online subscriptions c) advertisements d) subsidiary products 13. in objective journalism, reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover. a) true b) false 16. many editors discourage e-mail interviews because it gives the interviewees too much control over shaping their answers. a) true b) false 17. for mainstream print and tv reporters and editors, online news has not added new dimensions to journalism. a) true b) false 18. journalists in the digital age have not faced additional demands as the result of convergence. a) true b) false 19. for most journalists, the bottom line is to “get the story.” a) true b) false page 3 20. most mainstream news organizations do not have ethical expectations for journalists that extend beyond the hours spent on the job. a) true b) false 22. the “echo chamber” refers to the idea that some media consciously cater to a portion of society, and that people will seek out only those sources with which they agree and avoid any news that might challenge their worldview. a) true b) false 23. conventional journalists will fight ferociously for the principles that underpin journalism's basic tenets. a) true b) false 1. the saturday evening post was the first major magazine to appeal directly to ______. a) farmers b) women c) immigrants d) retirees 2. in 1828, sarah josepha hale started the first magazine directed exclusively to a female audience, called ______. a) godey's ladies book b) youth's companion c) ladies' magazine d) ladies' home journal 3. what factor had an effect on the dramatic growth in magazine circulation in the nineteenth century? a) increased literacy b) improvements in mail delivery c) faster printing technologies d) all options are correct. 5. which magazine was the foremost outlet for photojournalism in the mid-twentieth century? a) the saturday evening post b) the north american review c) life d) harper's 7. tv guide became so popular because _____. a) it was initially free b) its first issue featured elvis c) it offered lurid commentary about tv stars d) newspapers had not yet started publishing tv listings 8. which popular magazine emerged in 1974 to capitalize on the celebrity-crazed culture that accompanied the rise of television? a) life b) tv guide c) people d) the saturday evening post 9. hugh hefner's playboy magazine became an instant success in 1953, thanks in part to _____. a) an expensive tv ad campaign b) sending free copies to one million male college students c) articles that criticized divorced and working women d) reaching a niche audience not served by tv 10. in targeting audiences by age, the most dramatic recent success has come from magazines aimed at ____. a) children b) teenagers c) young adults d) readers over fifty 12. the new yorker is an example of _____. a) a minority magazine b) an elite magazine c) a leisure magazine d) a webzine page 2 13. which is an example of a trade publication? a) the nation b) national review c) insight d) variety 16. the average magazine contains about _____. a) 10 percent ads b) 25 percent ads c) 45 percent ads d) 75 percent ads 17. a national magazine with split-run editions ____. a) includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies b) contains different stories for different geographic regions c) relies solely on newsstand sales d) sends special editorial content to readers with high incomes 19. magazines became a national mass medium in the united states before newspapers did. a) true b) false 20. the word magazine comes from the french term magasin, meaning “storehouse.” a) true b) false 22. since their beginnings in the 1740s, american magazines have primarily been a medium of entertainment and diversion. a) true b) false 24. general-interest magazines began to appear in the united states in the nineteenth century. a) true b) false 27. in 1906, president theodore roosevelt dubbed investigative reporters muckrakers. a) true b) false 29. the saturday evening post continued the muckraking tradition—especially by criticizing business corruption—into the 1920s. a) true b) false 30. by the mid-1980s reader's digest was one of the most popular magazines in the world. a) true b) false 31. in the 1970s, as families began spending more time gathered around their tvs instead of reading magazines, advertisers began spending more money on tv spots, which were less expensive than magazine ads and reached a larger audience. a) true b) false 32. tv guide's physical format has largely remained the same since it was founded in 1953. a) true b) false 33. in 1974, people became one of the first successful mass market magazines to be introduced in decades. a) true b) false 34. the circulation of rolling stone has dropped in recent years because readers objected to its alternative standing. a) true b) false page 5 35. alternative magazines publish information “outside the mainstream.” a) true b) false 38. at first observers viewed the internet as the death knell for print magazines, but now the industry embraces it. a) true b) false 39. some advertisers and companies have canceled ads when a magazine printed articles that were unflattering toward or critical of the firm or its industry. a) true b) false 42. the typical consumer magazine distributes far more copies through single-copy sales by retailers than through subscriptions. a) true b) false page 6 43. evergreen magazine subscriptions are those that are automatically renew on the subscriber's credit card. a) true b) false 44. large companies or chains have come to dominate the magazine business. a) true b) false 1. a major difference between sound recordings made by emile berliner and those made by thomas edison was that _____. a) berliner's disks were made of wax b) edison's disks could be mass produced c) berliner's disks were flat d) edison's disks were coated with lamp black 2. under the compromise reached by cbs and rca in 1953, singles were released on the _____ format. a) 33-1/3 rpm b) 45 rpm c) 78 rpm d) cd 3. the advent of _____ paved the way for digital recording. a) wax cylinders b) lamp black c) magnetic audiotape d) flat disks 4. for a time, white cover music versions of black rock-and-roll artists' songs were more popular and profitably, but a turning point occurred with which event? a) little richard had a hit, “tutti frutti,” in 1956. b) ray charles made a no. 1 hit covering a country song in 1962. c) the marvellettes scored a no. 1 hit with “please mr. postman” in 1961. d) lauren hill covered frankie valli's old tune “can't take my eyes off of you” in 1998 5. in an attempt to get people to accept rock's blurring of racial and other lines, cleveland deejay alan freed played _____ from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) original rhythm-and-blues music b) rhythm-and-blues songs as they were covered by white musicians c) blues music from southern artists d) rockabilly music that combined country, southern gospel, and mississippi delta blues page 1 7. one particularly difficult battle rock faced was the perception among mainstream adults that the music caused _____. a) juvenile delinquency b) monopolistic control of the music industry c) the cold war d) obscene and immoral behavior of recording artists 9. music industry revenue since 2000 is ____. a) increasing b) about the same c) dropping d) concentrated in independent labels 10. early inventors' work helped make sound recording a mass medium and a product that enterprising businesspeople could sell. a) true b) false 11. thomas edison made his first sound recordings on a cylinder wrapped in foil. a) true b) false 12. unlike edison's phonograph, emile berliner's gramophone played flat disks. a) true b) false page 2 13. the recording industry switched from shellac to vinyl records in the early 1940s. a) true b) false 14. one advantage of polyvinyl records over shellac records is that they were less likely to break. a) true b) false 16. some people thought audiotape's portability, superior sound, and recording capabilities would mean the demise of records. a) true b) false 17. digital recording translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information in sequences of ones and zeros as numerical code. a) true b) false 19. in the mid-1920s, hundreds of radio stations went off the air because they could not afford to pay for the rights to broadcast recorded music. a) true b) false 20. the popularity of the jukebox caused record sales to drop sharply in the 1930s. a) true b) false page 3 21. competition from tv in the 1950s helped the radio and recording industries become allies. a) true b) false 22. motown became the foundation of rock and roll and was influenced by african american spirituals, ballads, and work songs from the rural south. a) true b) false 23. by 1955, r&b hits regularly crossed over to the pop charts, but for a time the white cover music versions were more popular and profitable. a) true b) false 24. cleveland deejay alan freed played original r&b recordings from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) true b) false 25. in the late 1950s, singers little richard and jerry lee lewis became convinced that they were playing “devil's music.” a) true b) false 27. motown records attracted a young, white audience primarily by emphasizing romance and a danceable beat over rebellion and political upheaval. a) true b) false 28. folk is considered a democratic and participatory form of music. a) true b) false page 4 29. punk rock arose in the late 1970s partly to defy the orthodoxy and commercialism of the record business. a) true b) false 30. jimi hendrix was a star of rock's psychedelic era. a) true b) false 31. grunge music became a significant form of rock and roll in 1992 as a result of a breakthrough album by nirvana. a) true b) false 32. because they are smaller, independent record companies are reluctant to invest in music that appears to be less commercial. a) true b) false 33. independent labels produce only about two percent of all recordings. a) true b) false 34. the advent of advertising supported music streaming services has weakened interest in online piracy—unauthorized online file-sharing and illegal file-swapping. a) true b) false 36. artists receive a performance royalty when one of their songs is played on the radio. a) true b) false page 5 37. songwriters and publishers receive a mechanical royalty each time a recording of their song is sold. a) true b) false 1. the telegraph had significant limitations as a means of communicating between ships because _____, making it useless for anyone seeking to communicate with ships at sea. a) its signal was too weak to travel across bodies of water b) the telegraph signal was distorted by the electromagnetic spectrum c) telegraph equipment was too cumbersome to be used aboard ship d) it depended on wires 3. the person credited with making the first voice broadcast is ______. a) heinrich hertz b) guglielmo marconi c) lee de forest d) reginald fessenden 5. which event led to the radio act of 1912 and required all radio stations on land or at sea to be licensed and assigned special call letters? a) fessenden's 1906 christmas eve transmission b) the sinking of the titanic c) david sarnoff's wedding d) lee de forest's eiffel tower broadcast 6. what did the government do with radio when the united states entered world war i in 1917? a) created a private monopoly b) closed down all amateur radio operations c) sold patents to great britain d) created national public radio page 1 7. ge founded the radio corporation of america (rca) to purchase and pool patents from the navy, at&t, ge, the former ______, and other companies to ensure u.s. control over the manufacture of radio transmitters and receivers. a) american marconi b) at&t c) westinghouse d) wnbc 8. who set up a crude radio station above his pittsburgh garage in 1916? a) edwin h. armstrong b) david sarnoff c) ethan zuckerman d) frank conrad 10. as a new network, cbs was able to compete with nbc by ____. a) charging affiliates less for its programs b) advertising its programs on billboards c) paying affiliates to carry its programs d) being the first network to broadcast in high fidelity 11. the act that first emphasized that licensees did not own their channels but were granted licenses provided that they operated in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity” was the _____. a) federal communications act of 1934 b) radio act of 1912 c) radio act of 1927 d) 1932 revocation of rca's monopoly status page 2 12. what time period is considered the “golden age” of radio? a) late 1950s b) early 1900s c) 1920s through 1940s d) 1890s through 1910s 13. the transistor made radio receivers ____. a) portable b) expensive c) larger d) stereophonic 14. the public found it easy to believe orson welles's broadcast of war of the worlds because _____. a) it sounded like an authentic news report b) the broadcast was never identified as fiction or a dramatization c) a sizable meteor really did hit new jersey that day d) all options are correct. 15. tv snatched radio's ____. a) audiences b) program genres c) place in the living room d) all options are correct. 16. compared to am radio, fm radio _____. a) includes less static and has greater clarity b) is cheaper to operate c) is better for talk programs d) no option is correct. 17. radio formats usually target special audiences according to _____. a) age and income b) gender c) race or ethnicity d) all options are correct. page 3 18. network radio helped give the united states “a national identity.” a) true b) false 20. guglielmo marconi received a patent on wireless telegraphy, a form of voiceless point-to-point communication. a) true b) false 21. history often cites marconi as the “father of radio,” but russian scientist alexander popov accomplished similar feats in st. petersburg at the same time. a) true b) false 22. nikola tesla was the founder of the first radio network. a) true b) false 24. american marconi (a subsidiary of british marconi) was the biggest of the companies focused on ship-to-shore communication. a) true b) false 25. the wireless ship act of 1910 resulted from the sinking of the titanic. a) true b) false page 4 26. william paley built the cbs network by charging large fees to its affiliates. a) true b) false 27. the radio act of 1927 created the radio corporation of america. a) true b) false 28. in the 1940s, nbc sold its blue network, which then became cbs. a) true b) false 29. radio soap operas got their name because they were often sponsored by makers of soap products. a) true b) false 30. the period of the 1920s through the 1940s was marked by a proliferation of informative and entertaining radio programs. a) true b) false 31. the invention of the transistor in the late 1940s made radio more accessible and portable than ever. a) true b) false 32. the radio industry transformed its business model in the 1950s because of television. a) true b) false 33. the term top 40 is derived from the number of records stored in a jukebox, and top 40 format refers to the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales. a) true b) false page 5 34. am radio is superior to fm radio for broadcasting music. a) true b) false 36. jazz music formats in radio today reach more total listeners than any other format. a) true b) false 37. the aim of networks such as cbs and nbc was to serve the public interest. a) true b) false 38. congress created national public radio to help win the cold war. a) true b) false 39. one type of internet radio station involves an existing am, fm, satellite, or hd station “streaming” a simulcast version of its on-air signal over the web. a) true b) false 41. the practice of payola affected 1950s radio, but does not occur today. a) true b) false page 6 42. the fcc cannot provide oversight for the practice of payola on streaming radio services. a) true b) false 43. combined, the top three commercial radio groups—iheartmedia, cumulus, and townsquare media—own over sixteen hundred stations. a) true b) false 44. the telecommunications act of 1996 has resulted in more competition and less consolidation in u.s. radio. a) true b) false 46. most radio markets in the united states are dominated by a few owners. a) true b) false 1. who opened the first public movie theater in france in 1896? a) auguste lumière b) adolph zukor c) georges méliès d) louis lumière 2. american filmmaker edwin s. porter (maker of the life of an american fireman) a) shot narrative scenes out of order. b) made what is considered america's first narrative film. c) used the first recorded close-up in u.s. narrative film history. d) all options are correct. 5. in an early attempt to dominate the film industry, inventor thomas edison formed a) the motion picture monopoly of america. b) the edison oligopoly company. c) paramount studios. d) the motion picture patents company. 6. adolph zukor formed the famous players company in 1912 to a) give young actors a start in movies. b) exert control over movie production. c) serve as an agent for established actors. d) make exceptional movies with the best directors available. page 1 7. after edison, adolph zukor of paramount tried to monopolize the film industry by controlling a) production. b) distribution. c) exhibition. d) all options are correct. 9. who launched the company united artists? a) mary pickford b) douglas fairbanks c) charlie chaplin d) all options are correct. 10. under the studio system a) actors were independent contractors who could work for any studio. b) movies were made on an assembly line basis. c) the studios had no control over the private lives of their creative talent. d) producers were hired to direct the pictures. 11. to gain access to popular films, early theater owners and exhibitors had to agree to rent new or marginal films featuring no stars. this distribution strategy was called a) international distribution. b) block booking. c) option time. d) zukor's law. 13. _____ were built in the early 1900s to draw members of the middle and upper-middle classes to the movies. a) small neighborhood theaters b) downtown first-run theaters c) multiplexes in shopping malls d) movie palaces 14. which film was the first successful talking motion picture? a) the great train robbery b) the singing fool c) birth of a nation d) the jazz singer 15. _____ demonstrated the government's attempts at breaking up monopolies within the film industry. a) fin-syn b) the paramount decision c) the telecommunications act of 1996 d) huac 16. the drop in movie attendance that occurred after world war ii can be attributed to a) competition from radio. b) the population shift to the suburbs. c) the paramount decision. d) all options are correct. 17. in an effort to compete with television in the 1950s, the movie studios began making a) big-budget family films. b) documentaries. c) x-rated adult movies. d) films that dealt with social problems. 20. which of these is not a reason u.s. film viewing decreased during the 1950s a) television cornered the family market b) innovations like technicolor were not enough to lure people downtown c) americans chose to spend their money on material goods rather than movie tickets d) the introduction of cable television 21. _____ generate more revenue than domestic box-office income for major studios. a) dvd/video sales and rentals b) premium cable and pay-per-view sales c) distribution in international markets d) product placements 22. thomas edison was the first person who theorized about the possibility of motion pictures. a) true b) false 23. the first kinetoscope motion pictures were watched by only one person at a time. a) true b) false 24. the first public showing of edison's kinetoscope projector system was in a paris café in december 1895 where hundreds of viewers saw images on a large screen. a) true b) false 25. georges méliès made the first western, the great train robbery. a) true b) false page 4 28. an oligopoly exists when a few companies control an industry. a) true b) false 30. marilyn monroe became known as “america's sweetheart” after her work with the famous players film company shortly after 1912. a) true b) false 31. american studios were able to gain control of the world film industry during world war i. a) true b) false 34. birth of a nation (1915) was the first feature-length film produced in the united states. a) true b) false 35. the singing fool was the first real breakthrough for talkies. a) true b) false 36. the first sound movie, the jazz singer, was basically a silent film with a few spoken words. a) true b) false 38. examples of genres include comedy, drama, romance, and action/adventure. a) true b) false 39. film noir movies are notable for their bright lighting, lush sets, and upbeat story lines. a) true b) false 41. hollywood's primary “authors” are scriptwriters. a) true b) false page 6 43. all commercial movies made in the world are now produced and shot in hollywood. a) true b) false 44. american audiences refuse to watch foreign films. a) true b) false 45. today, the world's largest film industry is in india, out of the so-called bombaywood. a) true b) false 47. documentaries generally avoid controversial or unpopular subject matter. a) true b) false 48. the government's 1948 order forcing the major studios to sell their theaters effectively ended their control of the movie industry. a) true b) false 49. the paramount decision ended the dominance of the major studios over the commercial film industry. a) true b) false page 7 50. the motion picture production code was established in the 1960s to rate movies for age-appropriate content. a) true b) false 51. the major film studios were able to dominate movie exhibition in the united states by acquiring all the country's drive-in theaters. a) true b) false 52. domestic box-office income is still the largest single source of revenue for a typical feature film. a) true b) false 53. despite the popularity of dvds, theme parks, and soundtrack cds, the hollywood studio system continues to make money. a) true b) false 54. the film industry makes more money today from first-run releases in movie theaters than from home dvd/video releases. a) true b) false 55. international box-office gross revenues are almost double the u.s. and canadian box-office receipts. a) true b) false 56. film studios have generally resisted making product placement deals for creative reasons. a) true b) false 57. six studios dominate the u.s. film business. a) true b) false page 8 59. a “consensus narrative” is a type of movie that seeks a small, select niche audience. a) true b) false

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