The answer is at the end of this document.
The telegraph had significant limitations as a means of communicating between ships
because _____, making it useless for anyone seeking to communicate with ships at sea.
its signal was too weak to travel across bodies of water
the telegraph signal was distorted by the electromagnetic spectrum
telegraph equipment was too cumbersome to be used aboard ship
Marconi realized that developing a way to send high-speed messages over great
distances would transform communication, _____.
commercial shipping, and the military
advertising, and the military
The person credited with making the first voice broadcast is ______.
The ______ was important to radio technology because it allowed radio signals to be
detected and amplified.
Which event led to the Radio Act of 1912 and required all radio stations on land or at
sea to be licensed and assigned special call letters?
Fessenden's 1906 Christmas Eve transmission
The sinking of the Titanic
Lee De Forest's Eiffel Tower broadcast
What did the government do with radio when the United States entered World War I in
Created a private monopoly
Closed down all amateur radio operations
Sold patents to Great Britain
Created National Public Radio
GE founded the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) to purchase and pool patents
from the navy, AT&T, GE, the former ______, and other companies to ensure U.S.
control over the manufacture of radio transmitters and receivers.
Who set up a crude radio station above his Pittsburgh garage in 1916?
In the late 1920s, which of the following was not a part owner of the National
As a new network, CBS was able to compete with NBC by ____.
charging affiliates less for its programs
advertising its programs on billboards
paying affiliates to carry its programs
being the first network to broadcast in high fidelity
The act that first emphasized that licensees did not own their channels but were granted
licenses provided that they operated in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity”
was the _____.
Federal Communications Act of 1934
1932 revocation of RCA's monopoly status
What time period is considered the “golden age” of radio?
The transistor made radio receivers ____.
The public found it easy to believe Orson Welles's broadcast of War of the Worlds
it sounded like an authentic news report
the broadcast was never identified as fiction or a dramatization
a sizable meteor really did hit New Jersey that day
TV snatched radio's ____.
Compared to AM radio, FM radio _____.
includes less static and has greater clarity
is better for talk programs
Radio formats usually target special audiences according to _____.
Network radio helped give the United States “a national identity.”
Radio evolved from technology developed in the 1840s.
Guglielmo Marconi received a patent on wireless telegraphy, a form of voiceless
History often cites Marconi as the “father of radio,” but Russian scientist Alexander
Popov accomplished similar feats in St. Petersburg at the same time.
Nikola Tesla was the founder of the first radio network.
Inventor Lee De Forest developed the Audion vacuum tube capable of detecting and
amplifying radio signals.
American Marconi (a subsidiary of British Marconi) was the biggest of the companies
focused on ship-to-shore communication.
The Wireless Ship Act of 1910 resulted from the sinking of the Titanic.
William Paley built the CBS network by charging large fees to its affiliates.
The Radio Act of 1927 created the Radio Corporation of America.
In the 1940s, NBC sold its Blue network, which then became CBS.
Radio soap operas got their name because they were often sponsored by makers of soap
The period of the 1920s through the 1940s was marked by a proliferation of informative
and entertaining radio programs.
The invention of the transistor in the late 1940s made radio more accessible and portable
The radio industry transformed its business model in the 1950s because of television.
The term Top 40 is derived from the number of records stored in a jukebox, and Top 40
format refers to the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales.
AM radio is superior to FM radio for broadcasting music.
The first person to discover and develop FM radio in the 1920s and the 1930s was
David Sarnoff of RCA.
Jazz music formats in radio today reach more total listeners than any other format.
The aim of networks such as CBS and NBC was to serve the public interest.
Congress created National Public Radio to help win the Cold War.
One type of Internet radio station involves an existing AM, FM, satellite, or HD station
“streaming” a simulcast version of its on-air signal over the Web.
Stations can pay for syndicated programming with money, receive the programming in
exchange for time slots for national ads, or combine the two.
The practice of payola affected 1950s radio, but does not occur today.
The FCC cannot provide oversight for the practice of payola on streaming radio
Combined, the top three commercial radio groups—iHeartMedia, Cumulus, and
Townsquare Media—own over sixteen hundred stations.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has resulted in more competition and less
consolidation in U.S. radio.
Most of the applicants for low-power FM radio licenses have been national retailers like
Most radio markets in the United States are dominated by a few owners.
American artist and inventor Samuel _____ initially developed the practical system of
sending electrical impulses from a transmitter through a cable to a reception device.
Person-to-person or point-to-point transmission of wireless messages is called _____.
In the mid-1860s, James Maxwell theorized that there existed _____ waves.
In 1906, Lee De Forest developed the _____ vacuum tube, which detected and
amplified radio signals.
Westinghouse established a station with the call letters _____, which is generally
regarded as the first commercial (profit-based) broadcast station.
_____ created a new subsidiary called the National Broadcasting Company.
The Federal Communications Act of _____ established the Federal Communication
A type of radio and sound transmission that is sufficient for radio content such as talk
but not ideal for music is called _____.
_____ is the person who discovered and developed FM Radio.
_____ is a noncommercial radio network established in 1967 by Congress to provide an
alternative to commercial broadcasting.
Under the provisions of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and the _____, NPR and
PBS were mandated to provide alternatives to commercial broadcasting.
_____ refers to the practice of making audio files available on the Internet so that
listeners can download and listen on a variety of devices.
_____ is a digital technology that enables AM and FM radio broadcasters to multicast
two or three additional compressed signals within their traditional analog frequency.
_____ is the practice by which record promoters pay deejays to play particular records.
What were Marconi's and De Forest's contributions to radio?
How did broadcasting come to be federally regulated?
How and why did radio networks develop?
What is the significance of the Federal Communications Act of 1934?
Explain how radio survived the coming of television.
Define format radio and give examples.
What has been the effect of deregulation on radio?
Pick two of the media that we have studied so far (magazines, sound recording, radio)
and briefly describe their evolution in terms of the three stages of emerging mass media.
4. the electronic era really took off with the arrival of what? a) radio b) television c) the internet d) the telegraph 6. what is one main meaning of the term media convergence? a) the technological merging of content across different media channels, such as songs being available on cell phones b) the appropriation of american products by foreign advertisers c) the diversification of various media holdings—such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and internet access—into separate companies d) all options are correct. page 1 8. the linear communication model can be criticized on the grounds that a) it assumes that culture is hierarchical. b) it asserts that audiences create their own meanings from messages sent. c) it does not usually move messages smoothly from a sender at point a to a receiver at point z. d) it conforms too closely to the eps model. 13. a manuscript culture existed between 1000 bce and the mid-fifteenth century and manuscripts were commissioned by members of the ruling classes. a) true b) false 14. the printing press fostered the rise of tribal storytellers. a) true b) false 15. gutenberg played an active role in the transition from oral to written culture. a) true b) false 16. with the coming of the printing press, the printed newspaper became the first mass-marketed product in history. a) true b) false 17. the computer was the first electronic innovation. a) true b) false 18. media convergence is considered a characteristic of the digital turn. a) true b) false 19. according to the textbook, media convergence has two very different meanings. a) true b) false 20. researchers do not all agree on whether watching violent tv shows makes viewers more likely to commit violent acts than not watching such tv shows. a) true b) false page 3 21. the senders of messages often have very little control over how their messages will be decoded. a) true b) false 22. according to the textbook, as cultural forms, the media help us make sense of daily life and articulate our values. a) true b) false 23. the cultural model recognizes that individuals assign diverse meanings to messages depending on personal characteristics, such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, occupation, and religious beliefs. a) true b) false 25. high culture is the same as popular culture. a) true b) false 27. the progressive era is another name for the postmodern period. a) true b) false 28. postmodern cultural values include working efficiently and believing in a rational order. a) true b) false page 4 29. content analysis is a tool of the social scientific approach. a) true b) false 30. in the textbook's comparison of two types of research about cancer news coverage, the social scientific approach focused on interpretation of the meanings of the media stories. a) true b) false 31. the critical process consists of describing, analyzing, interpreting, evaluating, and engaging with mass media. a) true b) false 32. those who consult research to acquire media literacy should concentrate on either cultural studies or social scientific studies. a) true b) false 3. many books from the middle ages were called illuminated manuscripts because they were _____. a) elaborately decorated with colorful illustrations b) printed using reflective ink c) burned in castle fireplaces to honor god d) read aloud in the town square by scholars who explained, or illuminated, the text 5. the right to use the contents of a book in another form, such as a mass market paperback or movie script, is called _____. a) royalties b) residuals c) subsidiary rights d) an advance 6. the division of the book industry that makes the most money is _____. a) trade books b) textbooks c) religious books d) mass market paperbacks page 1 8. the best-selling book of all time is _____. a) various versions of the bible b) better homes and gardens cookbook c) baby and child care by dr. benjamin spock d) peyton place by grace metalious 9. in 2015, the greatest estimated u.s. book revenue was generated by which market? a) pre-k–12 education b) trade books c) religious books d) professional books 10. numerous books have become best-sellers after they were selected for ____. a) inside edition b) oprah's book club c) c-span's booknotes program d) 20/20 11. many older books are deteriorating because _____. a) there is too much humidity in the library buildings b) the ink used in printing the books is eating through the paper c) the glue holding the books together is drying out d) the books were printed on acid-based paper 12. for hundreds of years, books were the only mass medium. a) true b) false 15. pulp fiction was another name for the popular paperbacks and dime novels of the late 1800s. a) true b) false 16. book publishing is dominated by a handful of giant corporations. a) true b) false 17. with the rise of electronic and digital publishing, book formats have expanded beyond print. a) true b) false 18. the publishing industry produces titles in a wide variety of categories. a) true b) false 19. trade books refers to the category of books sold to the general reader. a) true b) false 20. professional books are sold mostly through mail order, the internet, or sales representatives knowledgeable about the various subject areas. a) true b) false 23. sales of religious books have dropped substantially over the past twenty years. a) true b) false 24. university presses often publish scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in specialized areas. a) true b) false 25. amazon introduced an e-book reader—the kindle—in 2007. a) true b) false 26. brick-and-mortar stores include traditional bookstores, department stores, drugstores, used-book stores, and toy stores. a) true b) false 27. when a book becomes a movie or a television program, book sales soar. a) true b) false 28. in the publishing industry, advance money is an up-front payment to an author that's subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales. a) true b) false 29. distribution costs include maintaining the inventory of books to be sold and fulfilling orders (shipping books to commercial outlets or college bookstores). a) true b) false page 4 3. penny press newspapers _____. a) favored human-interest stories b) relied on subsidies from political parties c) catered to upper-class readers d) were sold exclusively by subscription 10. a newshole is _____. a) the portion of the newspaper dedicated to commercials b) nonnews stories that blur the line between entertainment and hard news c) the space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed d) stories not covered by a particular newspaper because of a reporter shortage 11. the majority of large daily papers today devote as much as one-half to two-thirds of their pages to _____. a) print subscriptions b) online subscriptions c) advertisements d) subsidiary products 13. in objective journalism, reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover. a) true b) false 16. many editors discourage e-mail interviews because it gives the interviewees too much control over shaping their answers. a) true b) false 17. for mainstream print and tv reporters and editors, online news has not added new dimensions to journalism. a) true b) false 18. journalists in the digital age have not faced additional demands as the result of convergence. a) true b) false 19. for most journalists, the bottom line is to “get the story.” a) true b) false page 3 20. most mainstream news organizations do not have ethical expectations for journalists that extend beyond the hours spent on the job. a) true b) false 22. the “echo chamber” refers to the idea that some media consciously cater to a portion of society, and that people will seek out only those sources with which they agree and avoid any news that might challenge their worldview. a) true b) false 23. conventional journalists will fight ferociously for the principles that underpin journalism's basic tenets. a) true b) false 1. the saturday evening post was the first major magazine to appeal directly to ______. a) farmers b) women c) immigrants d) retirees 2. in 1828, sarah josepha hale started the first magazine directed exclusively to a female audience, called ______. a) godey's ladies book b) youth's companion c) ladies' magazine d) ladies' home journal 3. what factor had an effect on the dramatic growth in magazine circulation in the nineteenth century? a) increased literacy b) improvements in mail delivery c) faster printing technologies d) all options are correct. 5. which magazine was the foremost outlet for photojournalism in the mid-twentieth century? a) the saturday evening post b) the north american review c) life d) harper's 7. tv guide became so popular because _____. a) it was initially free b) its first issue featured elvis c) it offered lurid commentary about tv stars d) newspapers had not yet started publishing tv listings 8. which popular magazine emerged in 1974 to capitalize on the celebrity-crazed culture that accompanied the rise of television? a) life b) tv guide c) people d) the saturday evening post 9. hugh hefner's playboy magazine became an instant success in 1953, thanks in part to _____. a) an expensive tv ad campaign b) sending free copies to one million male college students c) articles that criticized divorced and working women d) reaching a niche audience not served by tv 10. in targeting audiences by age, the most dramatic recent success has come from magazines aimed at ____. a) children b) teenagers c) young adults d) readers over fifty 12. the new yorker is an example of _____. a) a minority magazine b) an elite magazine c) a leisure magazine d) a webzine page 2 13. which is an example of a trade publication? a) the nation b) national review c) insight d) variety 16. the average magazine contains about _____. a) 10 percent ads b) 25 percent ads c) 45 percent ads d) 75 percent ads 17. a national magazine with split-run editions ____. a) includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies b) contains different stories for different geographic regions c) relies solely on newsstand sales d) sends special editorial content to readers with high incomes 19. magazines became a national mass medium in the united states before newspapers did. a) true b) false 20. the word magazine comes from the french term magasin, meaning “storehouse.” a) true b) false 22. since their beginnings in the 1740s, american magazines have primarily been a medium of entertainment and diversion. a) true b) false 24. general-interest magazines began to appear in the united states in the nineteenth century. a) true b) false 27. in 1906, president theodore roosevelt dubbed investigative reporters muckrakers. a) true b) false 29. the saturday evening post continued the muckraking tradition—especially by criticizing business corruption—into the 1920s. a) true b) false 30. by the mid-1980s reader's digest was one of the most popular magazines in the world. a) true b) false 31. in the 1970s, as families began spending more time gathered around their tvs instead of reading magazines, advertisers began spending more money on tv spots, which were less expensive than magazine ads and reached a larger audience. a) true b) false 32. tv guide's physical format has largely remained the same since it was founded in 1953. a) true b) false 33. in 1974, people became one of the first successful mass market magazines to be introduced in decades. a) true b) false 34. the circulation of rolling stone has dropped in recent years because readers objected to its alternative standing. a) true b) false page 5 35. alternative magazines publish information “outside the mainstream.” a) true b) false 38. at first observers viewed the internet as the death knell for print magazines, but now the industry embraces it. a) true b) false 39. some advertisers and companies have canceled ads when a magazine printed articles that were unflattering toward or critical of the firm or its industry. a) true b) false 42. the typical consumer magazine distributes far more copies through single-copy sales by retailers than through subscriptions. a) true b) false page 6 43. evergreen magazine subscriptions are those that are automatically renew on the subscriber's credit card. a) true b) false 44. large companies or chains have come to dominate the magazine business. a) true b) false 1. a major difference between sound recordings made by emile berliner and those made by thomas edison was that _____. a) berliner's disks were made of wax b) edison's disks could be mass produced c) berliner's disks were flat d) edison's disks were coated with lamp black 2. under the compromise reached by cbs and rca in 1953, singles were released on the _____ format. a) 33-1/3 rpm b) 45 rpm c) 78 rpm d) cd 3. the advent of _____ paved the way for digital recording. a) wax cylinders b) lamp black c) magnetic audiotape d) flat disks 4. for a time, white cover music versions of black rock-and-roll artists' songs were more popular and profitably, but a turning point occurred with which event? a) little richard had a hit, “tutti frutti,” in 1956. b) ray charles made a no. 1 hit covering a country song in 1962. c) the marvellettes scored a no. 1 hit with “please mr. postman” in 1961. d) lauren hill covered frankie valli's old tune “can't take my eyes off of you” in 1998 5. in an attempt to get people to accept rock's blurring of racial and other lines, cleveland deejay alan freed played _____ from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) original rhythm-and-blues music b) rhythm-and-blues songs as they were covered by white musicians c) blues music from southern artists d) rockabilly music that combined country, southern gospel, and mississippi delta blues page 1 7. one particularly difficult battle rock faced was the perception among mainstream adults that the music caused _____. a) juvenile delinquency b) monopolistic control of the music industry c) the cold war d) obscene and immoral behavior of recording artists 9. music industry revenue since 2000 is ____. a) increasing b) about the same c) dropping d) concentrated in independent labels 10. early inventors' work helped make sound recording a mass medium and a product that enterprising businesspeople could sell. a) true b) false 11. thomas edison made his first sound recordings on a cylinder wrapped in foil. a) true b) false 12. unlike edison's phonograph, emile berliner's gramophone played flat disks. a) true b) false page 2 13. the recording industry switched from shellac to vinyl records in the early 1940s. a) true b) false 14. one advantage of polyvinyl records over shellac records is that they were less likely to break. a) true b) false 16. some people thought audiotape's portability, superior sound, and recording capabilities would mean the demise of records. a) true b) false 17. digital recording translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information in sequences of ones and zeros as numerical code. a) true b) false 19. in the mid-1920s, hundreds of radio stations went off the air because they could not afford to pay for the rights to broadcast recorded music. a) true b) false 20. the popularity of the jukebox caused record sales to drop sharply in the 1930s. a) true b) false page 3 21. competition from tv in the 1950s helped the radio and recording industries become allies. a) true b) false 22. motown became the foundation of rock and roll and was influenced by african american spirituals, ballads, and work songs from the rural south. a) true b) false 23. by 1955, r&b hits regularly crossed over to the pop charts, but for a time the white cover music versions were more popular and profitable. a) true b) false 24. cleveland deejay alan freed played original r&b recordings from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) true b) false 25. in the late 1950s, singers little richard and jerry lee lewis became convinced that they were playing “devil's music.” a) true b) false 27. motown records attracted a young, white audience primarily by emphasizing romance and a danceable beat over rebellion and political upheaval. a) true b) false 28. folk is considered a democratic and participatory form of music. a) true b) false page 4 29. punk rock arose in the late 1970s partly to defy the orthodoxy and commercialism of the record business. a) true b) false 30. jimi hendrix was a star of rock's psychedelic era. a) true b) false 31. grunge music became a significant form of rock and roll in 1992 as a result of a breakthrough album by nirvana. a) true b) false 32. because they are smaller, independent record companies are reluctant to invest in music that appears to be less commercial. a) true b) false 33. independent labels produce only about two percent of all recordings. a) true b) false 34. the advent of advertising supported music streaming services has weakened interest in online piracy—unauthorized online file-sharing and illegal file-swapping. a) true b) false 36. artists receive a performance royalty when one of their songs is played on the radio. a) true b) false page 5 37. songwriters and publishers receive a mechanical royalty each time a recording of their song is sold. a) true b) false 1. the telegraph had significant limitations as a means of communicating between ships because _____, making it useless for anyone seeking to communicate with ships at sea. a) its signal was too weak to travel across bodies of water b) the telegraph signal was distorted by the electromagnetic spectrum c) telegraph equipment was too cumbersome to be used aboard ship d) it depended on wires 3. the person credited with making the first voice broadcast is ______. a) heinrich hertz b) guglielmo marconi c) lee de forest d) reginald fessenden 5. which event led to the radio act of 1912 and required all radio stations on land or at sea to be licensed and assigned special call letters? a) fessenden's 1906 christmas eve transmission b) the sinking of the titanic c) david sarnoff's wedding d) lee de forest's eiffel tower broadcast 6. what did the government do with radio when the united states entered world war i in 1917? a) created a private monopoly b) closed down all amateur radio operations c) sold patents to great britain d) created national public radio page 1 7. ge founded the radio corporation of america (rca) to purchase and pool patents from the navy, at&t, ge, the former ______, and other companies to ensure u.s. control over the manufacture of radio transmitters and receivers. a) american marconi b) at&t c) westinghouse d) wnbc 8. who set up a crude radio station above his pittsburgh garage in 1916? a) edwin h. armstrong b) david sarnoff c) ethan zuckerman d) frank conrad 10. as a new network, cbs was able to compete with nbc by ____. a) charging affiliates less for its programs b) advertising its programs on billboards c) paying affiliates to carry its programs d) being the first network to broadcast in high fidelity 11. the act that first emphasized that licensees did not own their channels but were granted licenses provided that they operated in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity” was the _____. a) federal communications act of 1934 b) radio act of 1912 c) radio act of 1927 d) 1932 revocation of rca's monopoly status page 2 12. what time period is considered the “golden age” of radio? a) late 1950s b) early 1900s c) 1920s through 1940s d) 1890s through 1910s 13. the transistor made radio receivers ____. a) portable b) expensive c) larger d) stereophonic 14. the public found it easy to believe orson welles's broadcast of war of the worlds because _____. a) it sounded like an authentic news report b) the broadcast was never identified as fiction or a dramatization c) a sizable meteor really did hit new jersey that day d) all options are correct. 15. tv snatched radio's ____. a) audiences b) program genres c) place in the living room d) all options are correct. 16. compared to am radio, fm radio _____. a) includes less static and has greater clarity b) is cheaper to operate c) is better for talk programs d) no option is correct. 17. radio formats usually target special audiences according to _____. a) age and income b) gender c) race or ethnicity d) all options are correct. page 3 18. network radio helped give the united states “a national identity.” a) true b) false 20. guglielmo marconi received a patent on wireless telegraphy, a form of voiceless point-to-point communication. a) true b) false 21. history often cites marconi as the “father of radio,” but russian scientist alexander popov accomplished similar feats in st. petersburg at the same time. a) true b) false 22. nikola tesla was the founder of the first radio network. a) true b) false 24. american marconi (a subsidiary of british marconi) was the biggest of the companies focused on ship-to-shore communication. a) true b) false 25. the wireless ship act of 1910 resulted from the sinking of the titanic. a) true b) false page 4 26. william paley built the cbs network by charging large fees to its affiliates. a) true b) false 27. the radio act of 1927 created the radio corporation of america. a) true b) false 28. in the 1940s, nbc sold its blue network, which then became cbs. a) true b) false 29. radio soap operas got their name because they were often sponsored by makers of soap products. a) true b) false 30. the period of the 1920s through the 1940s was marked by a proliferation of informative and entertaining radio programs. a) true b) false 31. the invention of the transistor in the late 1940s made radio more accessible and portable than ever. a) true b) false 32. the radio industry transformed its business model in the 1950s because of television. a) true b) false 33. the term top 40 is derived from the number of records stored in a jukebox, and top 40 format refers to the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales. a) true b) false page 5 34. am radio is superior to fm radio for broadcasting music. a) true b) false 36. jazz music formats in radio today reach more total listeners than any other format. a) true b) false 37. the aim of networks such as cbs and nbc was to serve the public interest. a) true b) false 38. congress created national public radio to help win the cold war. a) true b) false 39. one type of internet radio station involves an existing am, fm, satellite, or hd station “streaming” a simulcast version of its on-air signal over the web. a) true b) false 41. the practice of payola affected 1950s radio, but does not occur today. a) true b) false page 6 42. the fcc cannot provide oversight for the practice of payola on streaming radio services. a) true b) false 43. combined, the top three commercial radio groups—iheartmedia, cumulus, and townsquare media—own over sixteen hundred stations. a) true b) false 44. the telecommunications act of 1996 has resulted in more competition and less consolidation in u.s. radio. a) true b) false 46. most radio markets in the united states are dominated by a few owners. a) true b) false