Type
Quiz
Book Title
Media Essentials 4th Edition
ISBN 13
978-1319059477

978-1319059477 Test Bank Chapter 3

June 16, 2020
Page 1
1.
This colonial paper, founded by the Popular Party, opposed British rule and attacked the
government officials.
A)
Pennsylvania Gazette
B)
New-York Weekly Journal
C)
Publick Occurrences
D)
Domestick
2.
Which of the following eras of journalism best represents the historical arrival of
newspapers as a mass medium?
A)
Penny press
B)
Partisan press
C)
Literary journalism
D)
Interpretive reporting
3.
Penny press newspapers _____.
A)
favored human-interest stories
B)
relied on subsidies from political parties
C)
catered to upper-class readers
D)
were sold exclusively by subscription
4.
Yellow journalism is _____.
A)
a journalism term from the 1950s for small-town papers and reporting styles
B)
a journalism term for federally funded newspaper archives in the 1960s and 1970s
C)
a journalism trend in the late 1800s that emphasized exciting human-interest
stories, crime news, large headlines, and easy-to-digest copy
D)
a 1980s industry term for PR-generated stories
5.
Name the publication most closely associated with the reinvented ideal of an impartial,
or purely informational, news model.
A)
The New York Times
B)
USA Today
C)
Time
D)
The New York World
6.
What development spawned the rise of interpretive journalism in the 1930s and 1940s?
A)
Objective reporting had not prepared people for the outbreak of World War I
B)
A need by newspapers to compete against radio
C)
The world's increasing complexity and need to explain the ramification of key
issues and events
D)
All options are correct.
Page 2
7.
Which of the following developments accounts for declining newspaper readership?
A)
Competition from radio
B)
Competition from television
C)
The availability of newspapers on the Internet
D)
All options are correct.
8.
Which of the following is not one of the basic criteria of newsworthiness?
A)
Timeliness
B)
Proximity
C)
Conflict
D)
Consensus
9.
Herbert Gans studied the newsroom cultures of CBS, NBC, Newsweek, and Time during
the 1970s. Which of the following is not one of the enduring values he identified within
these newsroom cultures?
A)
Small-town pastoralism, favoring small, rural communities over big cities
B)
Major emphasis on individualism and personal stories over the operations of large
institutions or organizations
C)
An assumption that businesses compete only to increase profits
D)
Ethnocentrism, viewing other cultures through an American “lens”
10.
A newshole is _____.
A)
the portion of the newspaper dedicated to commercials
B)
nonnews stories that blur the line between entertainment and hard news
C)
the space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed
D)
stories not covered by a particular newspaper because of a reporter shortage
11.
The majority of large daily papers today devote as much as one-half to two-thirds of
their pages to _____.
A)
print subscriptions
B)
online subscriptions
C)
advertisements
D)
subsidiary products
12.
Yellow journalism in the late 1800s was the direct forerunner of today's tabloid
newspapers.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 3
13.
In objective journalism, reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the
issue or event they cover.
A)
True
B)
False
14.
The early twentieth century was a time when even the most notorious yellow journalists
wanted to boost the respectability of the news business.
A)
True
B)
False
15.
Interpretive journalism came about due to concerns over whether the impartial approach
to news reporting was sufficient to help readers understand complex national and global
developments.
A)
True
B)
False
16.
Many editors discourage e-mail interviews because it gives the interviewees too much
control over shaping their answers.
A)
True
B)
False
17.
For mainstream print and TV reporters and editors, online news has not added new
dimensions to journalism.
A)
True
B)
False
18.
Journalists in the digital age have not faced additional demands as the result of
convergence.
A)
True
B)
False
19.
For most journalists, the bottom line is to “get the story.”
A)
True
B)
False
Page 4
20.
Most mainstream news organizations do not have ethical expectations for journalists
that extend beyond the hours spent on the job.
A)
True
B)
False
21.
The trend today in the newspaper business is toward independent local ownership of
newspapers and away from national chain ownership.
A)
True
B)
False
22.
The “echo chamber” refers to the idea that some media consciously cater to a portion of
society, and that people will seek out only those sources with which they agree and
avoid any news that might challenge their worldview.
A)
True
B)
False
23.
Conventional journalists will fight ferociously for the principles that underpin
journalism's basic tenets.
A)
True
B)
False
24.
The _____ press is a forerunner to today's editorial pages as well as to some cable news
channels and Web sites.
25.
News accounts that focus on the trials and tribulations of the human condition are called
______, which often feature ordinary individuals facing extraordinary incidents.
26.
In _____ journalism, which distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns,
reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they
cover.
27.
Newsroom cultures of CBS, NBC, Newsweek, and Time in the 1970s shared a value that
puts a major emphasis on ______ and personal stories over the operations of large
institutions or organizations.
28.
Aristotle's ethical concept, the “_____,” was a guideline to find the balance between
competing positions.
Page 5
29.
Developed by Immanuel Kant, “_____” suggests that a society must adhere to moral
codes that are universal and unconditional, applicable in all situations at all times.
30.
What remains after the advertising department places the ads in the paper is called the
______.
31.
Explain different styles of newspaper reporting in American society.
32.
Name and explain at least three elements that contribute to the newsworthiness of an
event.
33.
Explain the main challenges that threaten American newspapers. How might these
challenges affect American democracy?
34.
In what ways do fake news shows such as The Daily Show and Full Frontal help
audiences to understand the news-of-the-day today and what do they inspire?
Page 6
Answer Key
1.
B
2.
A
30.
newshole
31.
32.
33.
34.
4. the electronic era really took off with the arrival of what? a) radio b) television c) the internet d) the telegraph 6. what is one main meaning of the term media convergence? a) the technological merging of content across different media channels, such as songs being available on cell phones b) the appropriation of american products by foreign advertisers c) the diversification of various media holdings—such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and internet access—into separate companies d) all options are correct. page 1 8. the linear communication model can be criticized on the grounds that a) it assumes that culture is hierarchical. b) it asserts that audiences create their own meanings from messages sent. c) it does not usually move messages smoothly from a sender at point a to a receiver at point z. d) it conforms too closely to the eps model. 13. a manuscript culture existed between 1000 bce and the mid-fifteenth century and manuscripts were commissioned by members of the ruling classes. a) true b) false 14. the printing press fostered the rise of tribal storytellers. a) true b) false 15. gutenberg played an active role in the transition from oral to written culture. a) true b) false 16. with the coming of the printing press, the printed newspaper became the first mass-marketed product in history. a) true b) false 17. the computer was the first electronic innovation. a) true b) false 18. media convergence is considered a characteristic of the digital turn. a) true b) false 19. according to the textbook, media convergence has two very different meanings. a) true b) false 20. researchers do not all agree on whether watching violent tv shows makes viewers more likely to commit violent acts than not watching such tv shows. a) true b) false page 3 21. the senders of messages often have very little control over how their messages will be decoded. a) true b) false 22. according to the textbook, as cultural forms, the media help us make sense of daily life and articulate our values. a) true b) false 23. the cultural model recognizes that individuals assign diverse meanings to messages depending on personal characteristics, such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, occupation, and religious beliefs. a) true b) false 25. high culture is the same as popular culture. a) true b) false 27. the progressive era is another name for the postmodern period. a) true b) false 28. postmodern cultural values include working efficiently and believing in a rational order. a) true b) false page 4 29. content analysis is a tool of the social scientific approach. a) true b) false 30. in the textbook's comparison of two types of research about cancer news coverage, the social scientific approach focused on interpretation of the meanings of the media stories. a) true b) false 31. the critical process consists of describing, analyzing, interpreting, evaluating, and engaging with mass media. a) true b) false 32. those who consult research to acquire media literacy should concentrate on either cultural studies or social scientific studies. a) true b) false 3. many books from the middle ages were called illuminated manuscripts because they were _____. a) elaborately decorated with colorful illustrations b) printed using reflective ink c) burned in castle fireplaces to honor god d) read aloud in the town square by scholars who explained, or illuminated, the text 5. the right to use the contents of a book in another form, such as a mass market paperback or movie script, is called _____. a) royalties b) residuals c) subsidiary rights d) an advance 6. the division of the book industry that makes the most money is _____. a) trade books b) textbooks c) religious books d) mass market paperbacks page 1 8. the best-selling book of all time is _____. a) various versions of the bible b) better homes and gardens cookbook c) baby and child care by dr. benjamin spock d) peyton place by grace metalious 9. in 2015, the greatest estimated u.s. book revenue was generated by which market? a) pre-k–12 education b) trade books c) religious books d) professional books 10. numerous books have become best-sellers after they were selected for ____. a) inside edition b) oprah's book club c) c-span's booknotes program d) 20/20 11. many older books are deteriorating because _____. a) there is too much humidity in the library buildings b) the ink used in printing the books is eating through the paper c) the glue holding the books together is drying out d) the books were printed on acid-based paper 12. for hundreds of years, books were the only mass medium. a) true b) false 15. pulp fiction was another name for the popular paperbacks and dime novels of the late 1800s. a) true b) false 16. book publishing is dominated by a handful of giant corporations. a) true b) false 17. with the rise of electronic and digital publishing, book formats have expanded beyond print. a) true b) false 18. the publishing industry produces titles in a wide variety of categories. a) true b) false 19. trade books refers to the category of books sold to the general reader. a) true b) false 20. professional books are sold mostly through mail order, the internet, or sales representatives knowledgeable about the various subject areas. a) true b) false 23. sales of religious books have dropped substantially over the past twenty years. a) true b) false 24. university presses often publish scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in specialized areas. a) true b) false 25. amazon introduced an e-book reader—the kindle—in 2007. a) true b) false 26. brick-and-mortar stores include traditional bookstores, department stores, drugstores, used-book stores, and toy stores. a) true b) false 27. when a book becomes a movie or a television program, book sales soar. a) true b) false 28. in the publishing industry, advance money is an up-front payment to an author that's subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales. a) true b) false 29. distribution costs include maintaining the inventory of books to be sold and fulfilling orders (shipping books to commercial outlets or college bookstores). a) true b) false page 4 3. penny press newspapers _____. a) favored human-interest stories b) relied on subsidies from political parties c) catered to upper-class readers d) were sold exclusively by subscription 10. a newshole is _____. a) the portion of the newspaper dedicated to commercials b) nonnews stories that blur the line between entertainment and hard news c) the space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed d) stories not covered by a particular newspaper because of a reporter shortage 11. the majority of large daily papers today devote as much as one-half to two-thirds of their pages to _____. a) print subscriptions b) online subscriptions c) advertisements d) subsidiary products 13. in objective journalism, reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover. a) true b) false 16. many editors discourage e-mail interviews because it gives the interviewees too much control over shaping their answers. a) true b) false 17. for mainstream print and tv reporters and editors, online news has not added new dimensions to journalism. a) true b) false 18. journalists in the digital age have not faced additional demands as the result of convergence. a) true b) false 19. for most journalists, the bottom line is to “get the story.” a) true b) false page 3 20. most mainstream news organizations do not have ethical expectations for journalists that extend beyond the hours spent on the job. a) true b) false 22. the “echo chamber” refers to the idea that some media consciously cater to a portion of society, and that people will seek out only those sources with which they agree and avoid any news that might challenge their worldview. a) true b) false 23. conventional journalists will fight ferociously for the principles that underpin journalism's basic tenets. a) true b) false

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