Type
Quiz
Book Title
Media Essentials 4th Edition
ISBN 13
978-1319059477

978-1319059477 Test Bank Chapter 14

June 16, 2020
Page 1
1.
The transition to an information economy was characterized by _____.
A)
an increasingly centralized and permanent workforce
B)
intense product rivalry between one country and another
C)
an emphasis on mass markets rather than niche markets
D)
the rise of mass media corporations
2.
Limited competition describes the following situation:
A)
when a single firm dominates an industry.
B)
when a market has many producers and sellers, but only a few products within a
particular category.
C)
when only a few firms dominate an industry.
D)
when customers pay directly for media goods, such as a cable TV or magazine
subscription.
3.
The 1996 Telecommunications Act _____.
A)
placed limits on cable company rate increases
B)
allowed telephone companies to buy cable firms
C)
allowed a company in the Top 20 market to own a newspaper and a TV station, as
long as there were at least eight TV stations in the market
D)
used regulation to guard against ownership concentration
4.
Government deregulation and corporate strategy are leading to a mass media industry
controlled by _____.
A)
hundreds of small companies
B)
monopolies
C)
oligopolies
D)
national conglomerates
5.
The billion-dollar mergers and takeovers that swept the mass media since the 1990s
were possible because of _____.
A)
speculation on Wall Street.
B)
deregulation.
C)
the collapse of communism.
D)
the rise of the World Wide Web.
Page 2
6.
Media that rely primarily on direct payment to collect revenues include all of the
following except _____.
A)
daily newspapers
B)
consumer magazines
C)
movies
D)
over-the-air radio stations
7.
Today's flexible media system, in which new products are constantly rushed to the
marketplace, favors _____.
A)
small boutique media companies that can develop products
B)
individual entrepreneurs who can tailor a unique media product to meet a niche
market
C)
large companies that can easily absorb losses incurred from failed products
D)
government-subsidized companies that do not have to be concerned with making a
profit
8.
The trend of downsizing _____.
A)
is a euphemism for laying off workers
B)
is supposed to make companies more productive, competitive, and flexible
C)
has forced many employees to scramble for jobs
D)
All options are correct.
9.
What does it mean when we say that media corporations “exercise hegemony” in our
society?
A)
They make large profits.
B)
They are monopolies.
C)
They control the government.
D)
They influence values.
10.
The significant tendencies in major mainstream media today are toward _____.
A)
community ownership and civic action
B)
specialization and synergy
C)
partisanship and deference
D)
national ownership and community action
Page 3
11.
What type of advantage promotes ownership patterns among the different media forms
in which several media subsidiaries under one corporate umbrella work to develop
versions of a similar product?
A)
Agenda setting
B)
Validity
C)
Mixed ownership
D)
Synergy
12.
In 2006, Disney CEO Robert Iger merged the company with _____.
A)
Pixar
B)
ABC
C)
CBS
D)
No option is correct.
13.
How has globalization affected American media companies?
A)
They have a smaller market share because so few people in the world speak
English.
B)
Most foreign governments greatly restrict American media in their countries.
C)
The technology gap between countries means that few people overseas can access
American media.
D)
Global audiences permit American companies that lose money on products to turn
a profit overseas.
14.
Because of antitrust laws, most media monopolies today operate on a(n) _____ level.
A)
national
B)
international
C)
local
D)
federal
15.
In our market economy, consumers have _____, but not very much control over the
types of products that they might actually want.
A)
freedom of choice
B)
enormous power
C)
freedom from thought
D)
No option is correct.
Page 4
16.
Our society has been reluctant to debate the inequalities inherent in mass media
ownership and has gradually collapsed the critical distinctions between _____.
A)
capitalism and the free market
B)
democracy and free speech
C)
space and time
D)
capitalism and democracy
17.
The United States has been accused of cultural imperialism because _____.
A)
U.S. corporations own most of the world's mass media
B)
the Pentagon dictates foreign policy in most foreign countries
C)
American styles in fashion, food, and entertainment dominate the global markets
D)
All options are correct.
18.
Cultural imperialism is _____.
A)
a concept in journalism ethics that argues that a journalist must know the culture he
or she is reporting on
B)
the theory that globalization is good for media because it makes media more
culturally diverse
C)
the idea that large and powerful countries can dominate and even change the
culture of smaller countries through media
D)
the argument that people are more affected by media that are familiar to them
19.
News Corp.'s purchase of MySpace was a tremendous success.
A)
True
B)
False
20.
A monopoly exists when a small number of firms control an industry, either nationally
or locally.
A)
True
B)
False
21.
In an oligopoly, just a few firms dominate an industry.
A)
True
B)
False
22.
The government trend toward deregulation was actually begun during the Carter
administration.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 5
23.
The television network Fox is owned by News Corp.
A)
True
B)
False
24.
Synergy typically refers to the promotion and sale of different versions of a media
product across the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate.
A)
True
B)
False
25.
The purpose of antitrust laws is to encourage diversity and competition in the
marketplace.
A)
True
B)
False
26.
Revenue for media companies comes from advertisers.
A)
True
B)
False
27.
The era of downsizing coincided with an increase in workers who belong to labor
unions.
A)
True
B)
False
28.
Because today's flexible economy demands fast product development, smaller media
companies have an advantage over their larger competitors.
A)
True
B)
False
29.
To lower costs, many manufactures of media equipment like televisions, VCRs, and
computers have exported work overseas to take advantage of cheaper labor.
A)
True
B)
False
30.
As media corporations have grown larger, they also have been able to manage public
debate about their increasing power.
A)
True
B)
False
Page 6
31.
Public debates about the structure and ownership of the mass media are encouraged by
media owners, who consider such discussions to be in their best interests.
A)
True
B)
False
32.
Most media monopolies today operate at the local, not the global, level.
A)
True
B)
False
33.
Media powerhouses push for more government regulation to control their competition.
A)
True
B)
False
34.
To circumvent U.S. antitrust laws, most media companies diversify among different
product lines, thus never completely dominating an industry.
A)
True
B)
False
35.
Hulu is a video-streaming service that only carries content from NBC Universal TV
(Comcast).
A)
True
B)
False
36.
Because films are so popular, independent production companies have little problem
raising funds to distribute their films nationwide.
A)
True
B)
False
37.
Most citizens of developed countries have a wide range of media products available to
them, but have little say in which media are created and circulated.
A)
True
B)
False
38.
_____ competition refers to a media market with many producers and sellers but only a
few products within a particular category.
Page 7
39.
This corporation owns the ABC network: _____.
40.
In a(n) _____, society's least powerful members are persuaded to accept the values
defined by its most powerful members.
41.
_____ is the phenomenon of American media, fashion, and food dominating the global
market and shaping the cultures and identities of other nations.
42.
Explain the significance of the transition to an information economy.
43.
What are the three basic structures of today's mass media industries, and how do they
differ?
44.
Describe the importance of the 1996 Telecommunications Act.
45.
Name and describe the trend for governments to take a decreasing role in monitoring the
structure and content of media (as well as other industries).
46.
How have media mergers changed the economics of mass media?
47.
Describe the rise of globalization in mass media.
48.
Describe three good examples of synergy.
49.
What is the role of synergy at Disney?
50.
What are the differences between freedom of consumer choice and consumer control?
51.
Explain why U.S. media are globally dominant and give examples.
52.
Why do some critics charge that concentration of media ownership by large
conglomerates is antidemocratic?
Page 8
53.
How can we maintain democracy in a world of media mergers and conglomerates?
Page 9
Answer Key
1.
D
2.
B
42.
43.
44.
Page 10
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
4. the electronic era really took off with the arrival of what? a) radio b) television c) the internet d) the telegraph 6. what is one main meaning of the term media convergence? a) the technological merging of content across different media channels, such as songs being available on cell phones b) the appropriation of american products by foreign advertisers c) the diversification of various media holdings—such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and internet access—into separate companies d) all options are correct. page 1 8. the linear communication model can be criticized on the grounds that a) it assumes that culture is hierarchical. b) it asserts that audiences create their own meanings from messages sent. c) it does not usually move messages smoothly from a sender at point a to a receiver at point z. d) it conforms too closely to the eps model. 13. a manuscript culture existed between 1000 bce and the mid-fifteenth century and manuscripts were commissioned by members of the ruling classes. a) true b) false 14. the printing press fostered the rise of tribal storytellers. a) true b) false 15. gutenberg played an active role in the transition from oral to written culture. a) true b) false 16. with the coming of the printing press, the printed newspaper became the first mass-marketed product in history. a) true b) false 17. the computer was the first electronic innovation. a) true b) false 18. media convergence is considered a characteristic of the digital turn. a) true b) false 19. according to the textbook, media convergence has two very different meanings. a) true b) false 20. researchers do not all agree on whether watching violent tv shows makes viewers more likely to commit violent acts than not watching such tv shows. a) true b) false page 3 21. the senders of messages often have very little control over how their messages will be decoded. a) true b) false 22. according to the textbook, as cultural forms, the media help us make sense of daily life and articulate our values. a) true b) false 23. the cultural model recognizes that individuals assign diverse meanings to messages depending on personal characteristics, such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, occupation, and religious beliefs. a) true b) false 25. high culture is the same as popular culture. a) true b) false 27. the progressive era is another name for the postmodern period. a) true b) false 28. postmodern cultural values include working efficiently and believing in a rational order. a) true b) false page 4 29. content analysis is a tool of the social scientific approach. a) true b) false 30. in the textbook's comparison of two types of research about cancer news coverage, the social scientific approach focused on interpretation of the meanings of the media stories. a) true b) false 31. the critical process consists of describing, analyzing, interpreting, evaluating, and engaging with mass media. a) true b) false 32. those who consult research to acquire media literacy should concentrate on either cultural studies or social scientific studies. a) true b) false 3. many books from the middle ages were called illuminated manuscripts because they were _____. a) elaborately decorated with colorful illustrations b) printed using reflective ink c) burned in castle fireplaces to honor god d) read aloud in the town square by scholars who explained, or illuminated, the text 5. the right to use the contents of a book in another form, such as a mass market paperback or movie script, is called _____. a) royalties b) residuals c) subsidiary rights d) an advance 6. the division of the book industry that makes the most money is _____. a) trade books b) textbooks c) religious books d) mass market paperbacks page 1 8. the best-selling book of all time is _____. a) various versions of the bible b) better homes and gardens cookbook c) baby and child care by dr. benjamin spock d) peyton place by grace metalious 9. in 2015, the greatest estimated u.s. book revenue was generated by which market? a) pre-k–12 education b) trade books c) religious books d) professional books 10. numerous books have become best-sellers after they were selected for ____. a) inside edition b) oprah's book club c) c-span's booknotes program d) 20/20 11. many older books are deteriorating because _____. a) there is too much humidity in the library buildings b) the ink used in printing the books is eating through the paper c) the glue holding the books together is drying out d) the books were printed on acid-based paper 12. for hundreds of years, books were the only mass medium. a) true b) false 15. pulp fiction was another name for the popular paperbacks and dime novels of the late 1800s. a) true b) false 16. book publishing is dominated by a handful of giant corporations. a) true b) false 17. with the rise of electronic and digital publishing, book formats have expanded beyond print. a) true b) false 18. the publishing industry produces titles in a wide variety of categories. a) true b) false 19. trade books refers to the category of books sold to the general reader. a) true b) false 20. professional books are sold mostly through mail order, the internet, or sales representatives knowledgeable about the various subject areas. a) true b) false 23. sales of religious books have dropped substantially over the past twenty years. a) true b) false 24. university presses often publish scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in specialized areas. a) true b) false 25. amazon introduced an e-book reader—the kindle—in 2007. a) true b) false 26. brick-and-mortar stores include traditional bookstores, department stores, drugstores, used-book stores, and toy stores. a) true b) false 27. when a book becomes a movie or a television program, book sales soar. a) true b) false 28. in the publishing industry, advance money is an up-front payment to an author that's subtracted from royalties later earned from book sales. a) true b) false 29. distribution costs include maintaining the inventory of books to be sold and fulfilling orders (shipping books to commercial outlets or college bookstores). a) true b) false page 4 3. penny press newspapers _____. a) favored human-interest stories b) relied on subsidies from political parties c) catered to upper-class readers d) were sold exclusively by subscription 10. a newshole is _____. a) the portion of the newspaper dedicated to commercials b) nonnews stories that blur the line between entertainment and hard news c) the space left for news in the paper after the ads have been placed d) stories not covered by a particular newspaper because of a reporter shortage 11. the majority of large daily papers today devote as much as one-half to two-thirds of their pages to _____. a) print subscriptions b) online subscriptions c) advertisements d) subsidiary products 13. in objective journalism, reporters ideally strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover. a) true b) false 16. many editors discourage e-mail interviews because it gives the interviewees too much control over shaping their answers. a) true b) false 17. for mainstream print and tv reporters and editors, online news has not added new dimensions to journalism. a) true b) false 18. journalists in the digital age have not faced additional demands as the result of convergence. a) true b) false 19. for most journalists, the bottom line is to “get the story.” a) true b) false page 3 20. most mainstream news organizations do not have ethical expectations for journalists that extend beyond the hours spent on the job. a) true b) false 22. the “echo chamber” refers to the idea that some media consciously cater to a portion of society, and that people will seek out only those sources with which they agree and avoid any news that might challenge their worldview. a) true b) false 23. conventional journalists will fight ferociously for the principles that underpin journalism's basic tenets. a) true b) false 1. the saturday evening post was the first major magazine to appeal directly to ______. a) farmers b) women c) immigrants d) retirees 2. in 1828, sarah josepha hale started the first magazine directed exclusively to a female audience, called ______. a) godey's ladies book b) youth's companion c) ladies' magazine d) ladies' home journal 3. what factor had an effect on the dramatic growth in magazine circulation in the nineteenth century? a) increased literacy b) improvements in mail delivery c) faster printing technologies d) all options are correct. 5. which magazine was the foremost outlet for photojournalism in the mid-twentieth century? a) the saturday evening post b) the north american review c) life d) harper's 7. tv guide became so popular because _____. a) it was initially free b) its first issue featured elvis c) it offered lurid commentary about tv stars d) newspapers had not yet started publishing tv listings 8. which popular magazine emerged in 1974 to capitalize on the celebrity-crazed culture that accompanied the rise of television? a) life b) tv guide c) people d) the saturday evening post 9. hugh hefner's playboy magazine became an instant success in 1953, thanks in part to _____. a) an expensive tv ad campaign b) sending free copies to one million male college students c) articles that criticized divorced and working women d) reaching a niche audience not served by tv 10. in targeting audiences by age, the most dramatic recent success has come from magazines aimed at ____. a) children b) teenagers c) young adults d) readers over fifty 12. the new yorker is an example of _____. a) a minority magazine b) an elite magazine c) a leisure magazine d) a webzine page 2 13. which is an example of a trade publication? a) the nation b) national review c) insight d) variety 16. the average magazine contains about _____. a) 10 percent ads b) 25 percent ads c) 45 percent ads d) 75 percent ads 17. a national magazine with split-run editions ____. a) includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies b) contains different stories for different geographic regions c) relies solely on newsstand sales d) sends special editorial content to readers with high incomes 19. magazines became a national mass medium in the united states before newspapers did. a) true b) false 20. the word magazine comes from the french term magasin, meaning “storehouse.” a) true b) false 22. since their beginnings in the 1740s, american magazines have primarily been a medium of entertainment and diversion. a) true b) false 24. general-interest magazines began to appear in the united states in the nineteenth century. a) true b) false 27. in 1906, president theodore roosevelt dubbed investigative reporters muckrakers. a) true b) false 29. the saturday evening post continued the muckraking tradition—especially by criticizing business corruption—into the 1920s. a) true b) false 30. by the mid-1980s reader's digest was one of the most popular magazines in the world. a) true b) false 31. in the 1970s, as families began spending more time gathered around their tvs instead of reading magazines, advertisers began spending more money on tv spots, which were less expensive than magazine ads and reached a larger audience. a) true b) false 32. tv guide's physical format has largely remained the same since it was founded in 1953. a) true b) false 33. in 1974, people became one of the first successful mass market magazines to be introduced in decades. a) true b) false 34. the circulation of rolling stone has dropped in recent years because readers objected to its alternative standing. a) true b) false page 5 35. alternative magazines publish information “outside the mainstream.” a) true b) false 38. at first observers viewed the internet as the death knell for print magazines, but now the industry embraces it. a) true b) false 39. some advertisers and companies have canceled ads when a magazine printed articles that were unflattering toward or critical of the firm or its industry. a) true b) false 42. the typical consumer magazine distributes far more copies through single-copy sales by retailers than through subscriptions. a) true b) false page 6 43. evergreen magazine subscriptions are those that are automatically renew on the subscriber's credit card. a) true b) false 44. large companies or chains have come to dominate the magazine business. a) true b) false 1. a major difference between sound recordings made by emile berliner and those made by thomas edison was that _____. a) berliner's disks were made of wax b) edison's disks could be mass produced c) berliner's disks were flat d) edison's disks were coated with lamp black 2. under the compromise reached by cbs and rca in 1953, singles were released on the _____ format. a) 33-1/3 rpm b) 45 rpm c) 78 rpm d) cd 3. the advent of _____ paved the way for digital recording. a) wax cylinders b) lamp black c) magnetic audiotape d) flat disks 4. for a time, white cover music versions of black rock-and-roll artists' songs were more popular and profitably, but a turning point occurred with which event? a) little richard had a hit, “tutti frutti,” in 1956. b) ray charles made a no. 1 hit covering a country song in 1962. c) the marvellettes scored a no. 1 hit with “please mr. postman” in 1961. d) lauren hill covered frankie valli's old tune “can't take my eyes off of you” in 1998 5. in an attempt to get people to accept rock's blurring of racial and other lines, cleveland deejay alan freed played _____ from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) original rhythm-and-blues music b) rhythm-and-blues songs as they were covered by white musicians c) blues music from southern artists d) rockabilly music that combined country, southern gospel, and mississippi delta blues page 1 7. one particularly difficult battle rock faced was the perception among mainstream adults that the music caused _____. a) juvenile delinquency b) monopolistic control of the music industry c) the cold war d) obscene and immoral behavior of recording artists 9. music industry revenue since 2000 is ____. a) increasing b) about the same c) dropping d) concentrated in independent labels 10. early inventors' work helped make sound recording a mass medium and a product that enterprising businesspeople could sell. a) true b) false 11. thomas edison made his first sound recordings on a cylinder wrapped in foil. a) true b) false 12. unlike edison's phonograph, emile berliner's gramophone played flat disks. a) true b) false page 2 13. the recording industry switched from shellac to vinyl records in the early 1940s. a) true b) false 14. one advantage of polyvinyl records over shellac records is that they were less likely to break. a) true b) false 16. some people thought audiotape's portability, superior sound, and recording capabilities would mean the demise of records. a) true b) false 17. digital recording translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information in sequences of ones and zeros as numerical code. a) true b) false 19. in the mid-1920s, hundreds of radio stations went off the air because they could not afford to pay for the rights to broadcast recorded music. a) true b) false 20. the popularity of the jukebox caused record sales to drop sharply in the 1930s. a) true b) false page 3 21. competition from tv in the 1950s helped the radio and recording industries become allies. a) true b) false 22. motown became the foundation of rock and roll and was influenced by african american spirituals, ballads, and work songs from the rural south. a) true b) false 23. by 1955, r&b hits regularly crossed over to the pop charts, but for a time the white cover music versions were more popular and profitable. a) true b) false 24. cleveland deejay alan freed played original r&b recordings from the race charts and black versions of early rock on his program. a) true b) false 25. in the late 1950s, singers little richard and jerry lee lewis became convinced that they were playing “devil's music.” a) true b) false 27. motown records attracted a young, white audience primarily by emphasizing romance and a danceable beat over rebellion and political upheaval. a) true b) false 28. folk is considered a democratic and participatory form of music. a) true b) false page 4 29. punk rock arose in the late 1970s partly to defy the orthodoxy and commercialism of the record business. a) true b) false 30. jimi hendrix was a star of rock's psychedelic era. a) true b) false 31. grunge music became a significant form of rock and roll in 1992 as a result of a breakthrough album by nirvana. a) true b) false 32. because they are smaller, independent record companies are reluctant to invest in music that appears to be less commercial. a) true b) false 33. independent labels produce only about two percent of all recordings. a) true b) false 34. the advent of advertising supported music streaming services has weakened interest in online piracy—unauthorized online file-sharing and illegal file-swapping. a) true b) false 36. artists receive a performance royalty when one of their songs is played on the radio. a) true b) false page 5 37. songwriters and publishers receive a mechanical royalty each time a recording of their song is sold. a) true b) false 1. the telegraph had significant limitations as a means of communicating between ships because _____, making it useless for anyone seeking to communicate with ships at sea. a) its signal was too weak to travel across bodies of water b) the telegraph signal was distorted by the electromagnetic spectrum c) telegraph equipment was too cumbersome to be used aboard ship d) it depended on wires 3. the person credited with making the first voice broadcast is ______. a) heinrich hertz b) guglielmo marconi c) lee de forest d) reginald fessenden 5. which event led to the radio act of 1912 and required all radio stations on land or at sea to be licensed and assigned special call letters? a) fessenden's 1906 christmas eve transmission b) the sinking of the titanic c) david sarnoff's wedding d) lee de forest's eiffel tower broadcast 6. what did the government do with radio when the united states entered world war i in 1917? a) created a private monopoly b) closed down all amateur radio operations c) sold patents to great britain d) created national public radio page 1 7. ge founded the radio corporation of america (rca) to purchase and pool patents from the navy, at&t, ge, the former ______, and other companies to ensure u.s. control over the manufacture of radio transmitters and receivers. a) american marconi b) at&t c) westinghouse d) wnbc 8. who set up a crude radio station above his pittsburgh garage in 1916? a) edwin h. armstrong b) david sarnoff c) ethan zuckerman d) frank conrad 10. as a new network, cbs was able to compete with nbc by ____. a) charging affiliates less for its programs b) advertising its programs on billboards c) paying affiliates to carry its programs d) being the first network to broadcast in high fidelity 11. the act that first emphasized that licensees did not own their channels but were granted licenses provided that they operated in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity” was the _____. a) federal communications act of 1934 b) radio act of 1912 c) radio act of 1927 d) 1932 revocation of rca's monopoly status page 2 12. what time period is considered the “golden age” of radio? a) late 1950s b) early 1900s c) 1920s through 1940s d) 1890s through 1910s 13. the transistor made radio receivers ____. a) portable b) expensive c) larger d) stereophonic 14. the public found it easy to believe orson welles's broadcast of war of the worlds because _____. a) it sounded like an authentic news report b) the broadcast was never identified as fiction or a dramatization c) a sizable meteor really did hit new jersey that day d) all options are correct. 15. tv snatched radio's ____. a) audiences b) program genres c) place in the living room d) all options are correct. 16. compared to am radio, fm radio _____. a) includes less static and has greater clarity b) is cheaper to operate c) is better for talk programs d) no option is correct. 17. radio formats usually target special audiences according to _____. a) age and income b) gender c) race or ethnicity d) all options are correct. page 3 18. network radio helped give the united states “a national identity.” a) true b) false 20. guglielmo marconi received a patent on wireless telegraphy, a form of voiceless point-to-point communication. a) true b) false 21. history often cites marconi as the “father of radio,” but russian scientist alexander popov accomplished similar feats in st. petersburg at the same time. a) true b) false 22. nikola tesla was the founder of the first radio network. a) true b) false 24. american marconi (a subsidiary of british marconi) was the biggest of the companies focused on ship-to-shore communication. a) true b) false 25. the wireless ship act of 1910 resulted from the sinking of the titanic. a) true b) false page 4 26. william paley built the cbs network by charging large fees to its affiliates. a) true b) false 27. the radio act of 1927 created the radio corporation of america. a) true b) false 28. in the 1940s, nbc sold its blue network, which then became cbs. a) true b) false 29. radio soap operas got their name because they were often sponsored by makers of soap products. a) true b) false 30. the period of the 1920s through the 1940s was marked by a proliferation of informative and entertaining radio programs. a) true b) false 31. the invention of the transistor in the late 1940s made radio more accessible and portable than ever. a) true b) false 32. the radio industry transformed its business model in the 1950s because of television. a) true b) false 33. the term top 40 is derived from the number of records stored in a jukebox, and top 40 format refers to the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales. a) true b) false page 5 34. am radio is superior to fm radio for broadcasting music. a) true b) false 36. jazz music formats in radio today reach more total listeners than any other format. a) true b) false 37. the aim of networks such as cbs and nbc was to serve the public interest. a) true b) false 38. congress created national public radio to help win the cold war. a) true b) false 39. one type of internet radio station involves an existing am, fm, satellite, or hd station “streaming” a simulcast version of its on-air signal over the web. a) true b) false 41. the practice of payola affected 1950s radio, but does not occur today. a) true b) false page 6 42. the fcc cannot provide oversight for the practice of payola on streaming radio services. a) true b) false 43. combined, the top three commercial radio groups—iheartmedia, cumulus, and townsquare media—own over sixteen hundred stations. a) true b) false 44. the telecommunications act of 1996 has resulted in more competition and less consolidation in u.s. radio. a) true b) false 46. most radio markets in the united states are dominated by a few owners. a) true b) false 1. who opened the first public movie theater in france in 1896? a) auguste lumière b) adolph zukor c) georges méliès d) louis lumière 2. american filmmaker edwin s. porter (maker of the life of an american fireman) a) shot narrative scenes out of order. b) made what is considered america's first narrative film. c) used the first recorded close-up in u.s. narrative film history. d) all options are correct. 5. in an early attempt to dominate the film industry, inventor thomas edison formed a) the motion picture monopoly of america. b) the edison oligopoly company. c) paramount studios. d) the motion picture patents company. 6. adolph zukor formed the famous players company in 1912 to a) give young actors a start in movies. b) exert control over movie production. c) serve as an agent for established actors. d) make exceptional movies with the best directors available. page 1 7. after edison, adolph zukor of paramount tried to monopolize the film industry by controlling a) production. b) distribution. c) exhibition. d) all options are correct. 9. who launched the company united artists? a) mary pickford b) douglas fairbanks c) charlie chaplin d) all options are correct. 10. under the studio system a) actors were independent contractors who could work for any studio. b) movies were made on an assembly line basis. c) the studios had no control over the private lives of their creative talent. d) producers were hired to direct the pictures. 11. to gain access to popular films, early theater owners and exhibitors had to agree to rent new or marginal films featuring no stars. this distribution strategy was called a) international distribution. b) block booking. c) option time. d) zukor's law. 13. _____ were built in the early 1900s to draw members of the middle and upper-middle classes to the movies. a) small neighborhood theaters b) downtown first-run theaters c) multiplexes in shopping malls d) movie palaces 14. which film was the first successful talking motion picture? a) the great train robbery b) the singing fool c) birth of a nation d) the jazz singer 15. _____ demonstrated the government's attempts at breaking up monopolies within the film industry. a) fin-syn b) the paramount decision c) the telecommunications act of 1996 d) huac 16. the drop in movie attendance that occurred after world war ii can be attributed to a) competition from radio. b) the population shift to the suburbs. c) the paramount decision. d) all options are correct. 17. in an effort to compete with television in the 1950s, the movie studios began making a) big-budget family films. b) documentaries. c) x-rated adult movies. d) films that dealt with social problems. 20. which of these is not a reason u.s. film viewing decreased during the 1950s a) television cornered the family market b) innovations like technicolor were not enough to lure people downtown c) americans chose to spend their money on material goods rather than movie tickets d) the introduction of cable television 21. _____ generate more revenue than domestic box-office income for major studios. a) dvd/video sales and rentals b) premium cable and pay-per-view sales c) distribution in international markets d) product placements 22. thomas edison was the first person who theorized about the possibility of motion pictures. a) true b) false 23. the first kinetoscope motion pictures were watched by only one person at a time. a) true b) false 24. the first public showing of edison's kinetoscope projector system was in a paris café in december 1895 where hundreds of viewers saw images on a large screen. a) true b) false 25. georges méliès made the first western, the great train robbery. a) true b) false page 4 28. an oligopoly exists when a few companies control an industry. a) true b) false 30. marilyn monroe became known as “america's sweetheart” after her work with the famous players film company shortly after 1912. a) true b) false 31. american studios were able to gain control of the world film industry during world war i. a) true b) false 34. birth of a nation (1915) was the first feature-length film produced in the united states. a) true b) false 35. the singing fool was the first real breakthrough for talkies. a) true b) false 36. the first sound movie, the jazz singer, was basically a silent film with a few spoken words. a) true b) false 38. examples of genres include comedy, drama, romance, and action/adventure. a) true b) false 39. film noir movies are notable for their bright lighting, lush sets, and upbeat story lines. a) true b) false 41. hollywood's primary “authors” are scriptwriters. a) true b) false page 6 43. all commercial movies made in the world are now produced and shot in hollywood. a) true b) false 44. american audiences refuse to watch foreign films. a) true b) false 45. today, the world's largest film industry is in india, out of the so-called bombaywood. a) true b) false 47. documentaries generally avoid controversial or unpopular subject matter. a) true b) false 48. the government's 1948 order forcing the major studios to sell their theaters effectively ended their control of the movie industry. a) true b) false 49. the paramount decision ended the dominance of the major studios over the commercial film industry. a) true b) false page 7 50. the motion picture production code was established in the 1960s to rate movies for age-appropriate content. a) true b) false 51. the major film studios were able to dominate movie exhibition in the united states by acquiring all the country's drive-in theaters. a) true b) false 52. domestic box-office income is still the largest single source of revenue for a typical feature film. a) true b) false 53. despite the popularity of dvds, theme parks, and soundtrack cds, the hollywood studio system continues to make money. a) true b) false 54. the film industry makes more money today from first-run releases in movie theaters than from home dvd/video releases. a) true b) false 55. international box-office gross revenues are almost double the u.s. and canadian box-office receipts. a) true b) false 56. film studios have generally resisted making product placement deals for creative reasons. a) true b) false 57. six studios dominate the u.s. film business. a) true b) false page 8 59. a “consensus narrative” is a type of movie that seeks a small, select niche audience. a) true b) false 1. who transmitted the first electronic tv picture? a) vladimir zworykin b) philo farnsworth c) thomas edison d) john grierson 2. the first tv camera tube, which converted light rays into electric signals, was called ______. a) static-free fm b) the iconosope c) hdtv d) the scanning disk jockey 3. the fcc began assigning certain channels in specific geographic areas in the 1940s to ______. a) raise money for the war effort b) ensure that elections were covered fairly c) avoid signal interference among stations d) allow nonprofit groups to have access to tv 6. sketch comedy is a direct descendant of _____. a) vaudeville b) kinescope c) situation comedy d) no option is correct. 7. in a television sitcom, character(s) _____. a) development is emphasized over plot twists b) change dramatically over the course of the series c) are under a great deal of stress d) solve a problem in each episode 8. in its early days, television drama drew on _____ for many of its technicians, sets, actors, and directors. a) the movies b) radio c) new york theater d) the music industry 10. grey's anatomy is an example of a(n) _____. a) anthology drama b) dramedy c) domestic comedy d) chapter show 11. cable television's oldest premium cable channel is _____. a) hbo b) a&e c) cnn d) tbs page 2 13. in tv history, the “network era” refers to which time period? a) late 1950s to late 1970s b) 1950s c) early 1930s to early 1940s d) 1980s 14. buoyed by the spirit of deregulation, the elimination of fin-syn and other rules opened the door for major merger deals including: a) disney's purchase of abc. b) at&t's purchase of directv. c) comcast purchase of nbc universal. d) all options are correct. 16. a television station not affiliated with any network is called a(n) _____. a) independent station b) syndicate c) pbs station d) youtube channel 17. the fcc's must-carry rules _____. a) required all cable operators to carry all local tv broadcasts b) established technical standards for cable broadcasts, regulating the signals carried by cable systems c) blocked cable systems from bringing distant television stations into cities with local stations d) all options are correct. page 3 18. some fcc officials and consumer groups maintain that cable systems _____. a) are common carriers because they control their content b) are electronic publishers because they are like phone companies c) are common carriers because they do not monitor content d) should have no regulations because of the first amendment 19. what is the most important ramification of the telecommunications act of 1996? a) it forbade telephone, radio, and tv industries from competing directly with one another. b) it ended a media monopoly by splitting up regional phone companies, long-distance carriers, and cable companies into distinct industries. c) it allowed regional phone companies, long-distance carriers, and cable operators to enter and compete in one another's markets. d) it forced digital satellite services to carry programming from local stations. 20. the practice of recording shows and watching them later when it is more convenient is called _____. a) fin-syn b) viewer's choice c) time shifting d) stripping 21. fringe is the time _____. a) after the network's late-night talk shows b) immediately before prime time c) when adult-content programs are scheduled d) after the network's late-night talk shows and immediately before prime time 22. the talk show ellen is an example of _____. a) off-network syndication b) first-run syndication c) an evergreen d) hybrid syndication 24. which term best describes the financial arrangement that most tv producers and movie studios enter into to make prime-time tv shows? a) joint funded b) above-the-line costs c) deficit financing d) economy of scale 26. the quiz-show scandals of the late 1950s resulted from quiz shows' frequently accepting incorrect answers from contestants and then covering up the mistakes. a) true b) false 27. many of the comedy program conventions in television actually came from radio. a) true b) false 28. only a few tv series from the 1950s have survived, and that is because they were originally shot on film. a) true b) false 29. grey's anatomy and csi are both examples of chapter shows. a) true b) false 30. public television was created by congress to serve viewers whose interests were ignored by commercial tv. a) true b) false 31. cnn dominates international tv news coverage. a) true b) false page 5 32. concerned that cable television would undermine broadcast television, the federal communications commission (fcc) enacted rules limiting cable's early growth. a) true b) false 34. in the landmark midwest video case, the u.s. supreme court defined the cable industry as a form of electronic publishing and upheld their right to dictate their own content. a) true b) false 35. starting in 1999, the digital video recorder (dvr) rapidly replaced vcrs, and viewers recorded shows on dvds instead of vhs tapes. a) true b) false 37. all syndicated programming consists of off-network reruns. a) true b) false 38. in tv syndication, a barter deal involves exchanging a show for a percent of ad revenue. a) true b) false 39. most television shows live or die by advertising. a) true b) false page 6 40. a share gauges the percent of homes tuned to a program compared with those actually using their sets at the time of the sample. a) true b) false 42. networks have the right to sell the bulk of advertising time (and run promotions of its own programs) during the shows—which helps them recoup their investments. a) true b) false 43. the major television networks—cbs, abc, fox, and nbc—own most of their affiliated stations. a) true b) false 44. despite the number of cable offerings, the four major traditional tv networks (abc, cbs, nbc, and fox) have remained an attractive business investment. a) true b) false 4. one form of media convergence is the a) tendency of news media to focus on local stories. b) use of digital technology to access different media channels. c) theory that there are more and more media outlets. d) way media coverage tends to follow a mob mentality in reporting. 5. facebook is a _____. a) blog b) wiki c) social networking site d) web browser 6. talking points memo is a leading _____. a) mash-up video b) blog c) mmorpg d) avatar page 1 8. how does google make money from e-mail? a) through ads based on key words in e-mails b) fees charged to users c) government subsidies d) reimbursements from computer manufacturers 9. what is the main difference between linux software and microsoft software? a) microsoft is less reliable b) linux is less reliable c) linux is open-source software d) microsoft is open-source software 10. the internet was created by private enterprise, but it has been taken over and expanded by the federal government. a) true b) false 11. the internet was designed so that a centralized authority could control electronic communication during a nuclear disaster. a) true b) false 12. arpanet is a browser. a) true b) false 15. the primary use of the internet in the 1990s was social networking. a) true b) false 16. many internet visionaries talk about the next era in web use as the romantic web. a) true b) false 17. html stands for “hypertext markup language.” a) true b) false 18. mosaic was the first user-friendly browser. a) true b) false 19. wikis are informative web sites that are strictly controlled by professional editors. a) true b) false 21. the web is a participatory medium in which anyone can be involved. a) true b) false 22. open-source software has code that can be updated by anyone interested in modifying it. a) true b) false page 3 25. recent court decisions have upheld congress's authority to restrict children's access to pornographic web sites. a) true b) false 1. how far back can the seeds of modern gaming trace its origins? a) dice games in ancient rome b) penny arcades in the 1880s c) computer games in the 1940s d) internet games in the 1980s 2. what is the most popular style of digital game in the united states? a) games with a first-person perspective b) puzzle games like tetris c) real-time strategy games d) word games 4. what is “isometric perspective”? a) the physics theory behind game development and design b) the mental attitude that successful gamers develop c) a symptom of digital game addiction d) a perspective that enhances the sense of three-dimensionality 5. what is one of the reasons that experienced online gamers form guilds? a) to avoid associating with inexperienced or unethical players b) to work together to lower game prices c) to protect the first amendment rights of gaming d) to design better games 6. where are digital games used in addition to the entertainment industry? a) military recruiting b) job training c) multimedia journalism d) all options are correct. page 1 7. a 2011 singapore study showed what percentage of those between grades 3 to 8 could be classified as digital game addicts? a) about 5 percent b) about 10 percent c) about 35 percent d) about 50 percent 8. what is the primary revenue source for the digital game industry? a) product placement in digital games b) online subscriptions to games c) the sale of games and consoles d) movie spin-offs made from digital games 9. how does advertising typically appear in digital games? a) as a brief commercial every time the game starts b) as billboards or logos in the game environment c) as commercials in the middle of game play, like on television d) ads are not part of digital game revenue 10. what costs are involved when creating a new digital game? a) design b) advertising c) acquiring intellectual property rights d) all options are correct. 11. how would you compare the cost of creating and launching a major new game to producing a movie? a) movies require much more advertising. b) they are about the same. c) digital games are much cheaper to make. d) a major new game can cost even more than a blockbuster film. 12. what was the entertainment software rating board created to do? a) it rates the quality of gaming consoles. b) it labels games for violent and sexual content. c) it monitors online gaming sites for identity theft. d) it monitors product placement within digital games page 2 13. what did the u.s. supreme court rule in 2011 about digital games? a) the rating system for games had the force of law. b) digital games had the same free speech rights as literature. c) it is illegal to create sexually explicit digital games. d) it is illegal to plagiarize digital games. 14. fewer than 30 percent of adults play video games. a) true b) false 15. pinball was originally banned in most u.s. cities because it was considered similar to gambling. a) true b) false 16. the first versions of digital games were patented in the 1980s. a) true b) false 18. some older games remain popular even though their graphics are not as advanced as modern games. a) true b) false 19. sales of the wii u, which takes the often sedentary nature out of video gameplay, as of june 2016 lags behind xbox one and playstation 4. a) true b) false 20. most handheld games are only played by serious gamers. a) true b) false page 3 21. computer-based gaming largely survives in the form of genres not often seen on consoles, like card games. a) true b) false 23. a noob is the gamer term for players who intentionally spoil the game for other players. a) true b) false 24. digital game addiction is a problem that affects men and women in equal numbers. a) true b) false 25. many digital games are purposefully designed to cultivate obsessive play. a) true b) false 26. the u.s. supreme court has granted digital gaming first amendment rights. a) true b) false 27. the entertainment software rating board was created by the federal government to monitor digital game content. a) true b) false 28. the gaming industry is a prominent part of the mass medium landscape. a) true b) false 1. the public became increasingly cynical about advertising in the late 1890s and early 1900s because _____. a) manufactured products always cost more than their advertised price b) advertised products were frequently not available c) advertisers forced newspapers to omit stories about their competitors d) patent medicines made outrageous claims about what they could cure 3. in the twentieth century, advertising ____. a) influenced the change from a producer-driven to a consumer-driven economy b) stimulated demand for new products c) showed how new products improved daily life d) all options are correct. 4. in advertising, ______ coordinate the views and needs of clients, the creative team, and consumers to create an effective marketing strategy. a) writers b) space brokers c) account planners d) media doctors 5. vals research for advertising refers to _____. a) values and lifestyles b) profiles of advertising sales by geographic region c) viceroy's analysis of liminal sensations d) the study of audience attention spans 6. psychographics involves the study of _____. a) sex b) age c) socioeconomic class d) attitudes and interests page 1 7. in advertising, the media outlets that are best suited to help a client's ad reach the target audience are selected by _____. a) media buyers b) space brokers c) account executives d) media doctors 8. account executives in ad agencies are primarily responsible for ____. a) bringing in new business b) creating ads c) buying ad space in media d) conducting market research 10. brands that claim that they are “america's favorite” are using a persuasive strategy called the ____. a) bandwagon effect b) snob appeal c) plain-folks pitch d) hidden-fear appeal 11. the hidden-fear appeal is often used to sell _____. a) cars b) computers c) food d) deodorant page 2 12. in advertising, association (or the association principle) is _____. a) a persuasion method that links the product with a setting, a person, a cultural concept, or a positive feeling b) a theory that argues that people associate a product with the feeling that they had the first time they used it c) the principle that higher-up associates in the advertising agency make fewer daily decisions than lower associates d) the antipersuasion model of linear causality 13. the form of advertising in which sponsors pay to have their products seen in tv programs and movies is called _____. a) billboarding b) integrated advertising c) product placement d) program exposure 14. channel one is an example of _____. a) an online service that tracks the success and placement of video news releases b) a campaign finance reform initiative c) a boutique agency d) youth-targeted advertising 15. commercial alert is a(n) _____. a) nonprofit watchdog group b) ad agency that created the marlboro man and the keebler elves c) statistical database that ad agencies use to monitor competitors' campaigns d) award organization honoring the year's most inventive tv commercials 16. before the 1850s, there was little need for advertising in the united states because there were few goods available for sale and virtually no consumer market. a) true b) false 17. the first american advertising agents were space brokers. a) true b) false page 3 18. advertising agencies charge a commission for their work, which typically amounts to half of what the media outlets are paid to run the ads. a) true b) false 19. patent medicines marketed in the 1880s were generally harmless and consisted mostly of flavored water. a) true b) false 20. in an attempt to minimize government oversight of advertising practices, the advertising industry established the better business bureau in 1913. a) true b) false 21. the ad council produces public service announcements (psas) at no cost to the client. a) true b) false 22. research has found subliminal advertising to be more effective than regular ads. a) true b) false 23. mega-agencies typically provide a full range of services, including public relations. a) true b) false 24. consumer and watchdog groups worry about the growth of mega-agencies. a) true b) false 25. boutique agencies were often started by account planners. a) true b) false page 4 26. even though boutique agencies give creative people the freedom to do good work, they have not been able to attract any major clients. a) true b) false 27. psychographics attempts to categorize consumers by their age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, and income. a) true b) false 28. google, bing, and yahoo! have quietly morphed into online advertising agencies. a) true b) false 30. it is difficult to distinguish an ad's impact on consumers from the effects of other cultural and social forces. a) true b) false 33. ads featuring the marlboro cowboy were a persuasive strategy based on the association principle. a) true b) false page 5 34. ad campaigns that resemble a sitcom do not work because we know that they are trying to sell us something. a) true b) false 35. product placement is an advertising strategy that puts products into movies, tv shows, and video games. a) true b) false 36. the first amendment specifically guarantees the right of commercial speech. a) true b) false 37. advertising is increasingly targeted at children and teenagers because they influence billions in family spending every year. a) true b) false 39. unlike tobacco ads, alcohol ads have yet to target minority populations. a) true b) false 41. political advertising is so inexpensive that most candidates can easily afford it. a) true b) false page 6 1. what did the story of vin diesel and the fast and the furious franchise reveal? a) stars must have pr professionals to communicate. b) the success of the fast and the furious franchise was solely due to the popularity of one big star. c) public relations continues to grow and change with the media industries it depends on. d) twitter has no advantages for celebrities. 2. on what part of society does public relations have the most significant impact? a) entertainment b) business c) politics d) religion 4. in the 1800s, america's largest railroads used press agents to _____. a) drum up passenger business b) sell shares of stock c) obtain federal funds d) obtain the right to ship coal 6. communication that is strategically placed, either as advertising or as publicity, to gain support for a special issue, program, or policy is known as _____. a) a pseudo-event b) propaganda c) improper-ganda d) a public service announcement page 1 7. video news releases (vnrs) are _____. a) public service announcements (psas) b) aired by tv stations as part of their requirement to serve the public interest c) produced by pr agencies and companies for use in tv newscasts d) eagerly accepted by tv news departments, especially in large markets 8. a media-relations specialist _____. a) recommends advertising b) directs reporters to experts c) speaks for their clients d) all options are correct. 10. pr firms often raid news staff for talent because _____. a) reporters are more ethical than pr practitioners b) reporters work cheap c) most press releases are written in the style of news reports d) many reporters started out working in pr firms 11. the claim that public relations encourages reporter laziness is based on pr firms that _____. a) strictly control access to news sources b) seduce reporters with bribes, liquor, free tickets, and other freebies c) play on reporters' egos by praising them for superficial work d) supply information that reporters can easily turn into stories 12. the public relations society of america (prsa) _____. a) accredits pr practitioners and firms b) avoids involvement in ethical issues c) was formed by the federal government d) is a consumer group that monitors public relations page 2 13. the first public relations practitioners were primarily press agents who staged stunts to get newspaper coverage for their clients. a) true b) false 14. p. t. barnum used gross exaggeration, fraudulent stories, and staged events to secure newspaper coverage for his clients, his american museum, and his circus. a) true b) false 16. ivy lee, one of the founders of public relations and often dubbed “poison ivy,” believed that deception was better than honesty in public relations. a) true b) false 18. edward bernays preferred to call himself a “publicity agent.” a) true b) false 19. edward bernays worked on propaganda to help the u.s. government during world war i. a) true b) false 20. public relations is largely a male profession, with relatively few female practitioners. a) true b) false page 3 21. there are about 200 public relations agencies in the united states. a) true b) false 22. independent pr firms are usually huge organizations with a national clientele. a) true b) false 23. in-house pr departments usually just create newsletters. a) true b) false 24. pr practitioners find focus groups and surveys less helpful than instinct in planning campaigns. a) true b) false 25. unlike the wide use of press releases in print journalism, network television journalists rarely use video news releases (vnrs). a) true b) false 27. when someone put poison in a few bottles of tylenol, company executives decided to withhold comment for a few days while they assessed the damage. a) true b) false 31. press releases are created using a specific pr style of writing. a) true b) false 32. reporters would have a harder time doing their job without the help of pr practitioners. a) true b) false 33. reporters object when pr professionals limit access to clients. a) true b) false 34. the public relations society of america (prsa) tends to downplay ethical issues in public relations. a) true b) false 35. individuals and organizations with extensive pr resources usually receive more coverage in the media than those without such pr resources. a) true b) false 1. what is areopagitica? a) a magazine involved in an early obscenity case b) a movie that prompted development of the rating system c) an essay defending a free press d) a web site that reveals government secrets 2. china operates under which model of the press? a) authoritarian b) state c) libertarian d) social responsibility 3. which model of expression tolerates all forms of speech, including pornography? a) authoritarian b) state c) libertarian d) social responsibility 4. which model of the press is most often associated with today's mainstream u.s. news media? a) authoritarian b) state c) libertarian d) social responsibility 5. the pentagon papers case involved which legal concern? a) copyright b) fair use c) libel d) censorship 6. in the progressive magazine case, a federal district court took a course of action based on concern that the magazine would publish _____. a) information on how an h-bomb works b) a story that defamed the president c) obscene material d) a story that endorsed drug use page 1 7. a written or broadcast expression that defames someone's character is _____. a) slander b) factual malice c) libel d) absolute privilege 9. prosecutors can legally accuse defendants of crimes in court because of which exception? a) copyright b) fair use c) libel d) absolute privilege 10. the u.s. supreme court sided with larry flynt in his case against jerry falwell because _____. a) hustler magazine was never sold outside the court's jurisdiction b) parody falls under the “fair comment” provision c) “privileged speech” is protected under the first amendment d) hustler was not the only national porn magazine 11. which choice is not part of the legal definition of obscenity? a) a work must appeal to prurient interest. b) a work must lack serious literary, artistic, political, and scientific value. c) a work must depict or describe dirty words and brutal violence. d) a work must depict sexual conduct in a patently offensive way. 13. in 1912, in the first type of national action limiting the film industry, the u.s. government banned the interstate commerce of which kinds of films? a) pornographic films b) films endorsing anarchy c) films about labor unions d) boxing films 14. in the mutual v. ohio (1915) decision, the u.s. supreme court ruled that film was _____. a) a “business pure and simple” b) a “spectacle” c) not a form of free speech d) all options are correct. 15. the _____ case in 1952 determined that film should be protected as a form of free speech. a) burstyn v. wilson b) mutual v. ohio c) new york times v. sullivan d) progressive 16. the u.s. movie rating system is an example of _____. a) state regulation b) deregulation c) federal regulation d) industry self-regulation 17. the current precedent for _____ is based on a complaint about comedian george carlin's sketch about the “seven dirty words” that could not be aired. a) indecency b) obscenity c) slander d) libel 18. section 315 of the 1934 communications act requires broadcast stations to ____. a) cover all sides of a controversy b) give all qualified political candidates an equal opportunity to obtain airtime c) provide response time for individuals attacked in a broadcast editorial d) offer educational programming for children page 3 19. as it was originally ratified by the states in 1788, the u.s. constitution did not include a guarantee of freedom of the press. a) true b) false 20. the sedition act of 1798 ended up solidifying american support of a free press. a) true b) false 22. if a soon-to-be-released article seems to violate libel or obscenity laws, most u.s. courts would act to stop publication. a) true b) false 23. the u.s. supreme court has defined censorship as prior restraint of speech. a) true b) false 24. the progressive magazine decision involved prior restraint of a publication about building a nuclear weapon. a) true b) false 25. appropriating a writer's or artist's words or music without consent or payment is a form of expression that is not protected as speech. a) true b) false 26. charles t. schenck was found guilty of violating the sedition act. a) true b) false page 4 27. students who quote and cite a copyrighted source in a term paper for class are technically violating the law. a) true b) false 28. defamation that is broadcast is considered slander because it is spoken rather than written. a) true b) false 30. it is harder for a private citizen to win a libel suit than for a public figure to win a libel suit. a) true b) false 31. parodies and insults of public figures are protected from libel suits unless the statements cause undue emotional pain. a) true b) false 32. the miller v. california case established a national standard for obscenity that is the same for all communities in the united states. a) true b) false 33. one of the purposes of privacy laws is to prevent unauthorized use of a person's name or likeness for commercial gain. a) true b) false 34. there is no federal shield law for journalists in the united states. a) true b) false page 5 1915. a) true b) false 38. movies released in the united states are required by federal law to be labeled with an mpaa movie rating. a) true b) false 40. according to twentieth-century u.s. supreme court decisions, the print media have received first amendment protections that are not always granted to broadcast media. a) true b) false 41. print and broadcast media are treated equally under the first amendment. a) true b) false page 6 42. newspapers are not required by law to give individuals an opportunity to reply to an editorial attack. a) true b) false 43. according to the 1934 communications act, broadcast stations must provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates. a) true b) false 44. the u.s. supreme court ruled that the federal communications commission (fcc) cannot ban indecent programming on the radio from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. a) true b) false 46. the internet is subject to the communications act of 1934. a) true b) false 47. according to a study on facebook traffic leading up to the 2016 election, fake news stories from fake news sites got more online engagement than real news stories from legitimate news operations. a) true b) false 1. the transition to an information economy was characterized by _____. a) an increasingly centralized and permanent workforce b) intense product rivalry between one country and another c) an emphasis on mass markets rather than niche markets d) the rise of mass media corporations 3. the 1996 telecommunications act _____. a) placed limits on cable company rate increases b) allowed telephone companies to buy cable firms c) allowed a company in the top 20 market to own a newspaper and a tv station, as long as there were at least eight tv stations in the market d) used regulation to guard against ownership concentration 4. government deregulation and corporate strategy are leading to a mass media industry controlled by _____. a) hundreds of small companies b) monopolies c) oligopolies d) national conglomerates 5. the billion-dollar mergers and takeovers that swept the mass media since the 1990s were possible because of _____. a) speculation on wall street. b) deregulation. c) the collapse of communism. d) the rise of the world wide web. page 1 7. today's flexible media system, in which new products are constantly rushed to the marketplace, favors _____. a) small boutique media companies that can develop products b) individual entrepreneurs who can tailor a unique media product to meet a niche market c) large companies that can easily absorb losses incurred from failed products d) government-subsidized companies that do not have to be concerned with making a profit 8. the trend of downsizing _____. a) is a euphemism for laying off workers b) is supposed to make companies more productive, competitive, and flexible c) has forced many employees to scramble for jobs d) all options are correct. 9. what does it mean when we say that media corporations “exercise hegemony” in our society? a) they make large profits. b) they are monopolies. c) they control the government. d) they influence values. 10. the significant tendencies in major mainstream media today are toward _____. a) community ownership and civic action b) specialization and synergy c) partisanship and deference d) national ownership and community action page 2 12. in 2006, disney ceo robert iger merged the company with _____. a) pixar b) abc c) cbs d) no option is correct. 14. because of antitrust laws, most media monopolies today operate on a(n) _____ level. a) national b) international c) local d) federal 15. in our market economy, consumers have _____, but not very much control over the types of products that they might actually want. a) freedom of choice b) enormous power c) freedom from thought d) no option is correct. page 3 16. our society has been reluctant to debate the inequalities inherent in mass media ownership and has gradually collapsed the critical distinctions between _____. a) capitalism and the free market b) democracy and free speech c) space and time d) capitalism and democracy 17. the united states has been accused of cultural imperialism because _____. a) u.s. corporations own most of the world's mass media b) the pentagon dictates foreign policy in most foreign countries c) american styles in fashion, food, and entertainment dominate the global markets d) all options are correct. 18. cultural imperialism is _____. a) a concept in journalism ethics that argues that a journalist must know the culture he or she is reporting on b) the theory that globalization is good for media because it makes media more culturally diverse c) the idea that large and powerful countries can dominate and even change the culture of smaller countries through media d) the argument that people are more affected by media that are familiar to them 19. news corp.'s purchase of myspace was a tremendous success. a) true b) false 21. in an oligopoly, just a few firms dominate an industry. a) true b) false 22. the government trend toward deregulation was actually begun during the carter administration. a) true b) false page 4 23. the television network fox is owned by news corp. a) true b) false 25. the purpose of antitrust laws is to encourage diversity and competition in the marketplace. a) true b) false 26. revenue for media companies comes from advertisers. a) true b) false 30. as media corporations have grown larger, they also have been able to manage public debate about their increasing power. a) true b) false page 5 31. public debates about the structure and ownership of the mass media are encouraged by media owners, who consider such discussions to be in their best interests. a) true b) false 33. media powerhouses push for more government regulation to control their competition. a) true b) false 34. to circumvent u.s. antitrust laws, most media companies diversify among different product lines, thus never completely dominating an industry. a) true b) false 35. hulu is a video-streaming service that only carries content from nbc universal tv (comcast). a) true b) false 36. because films are so popular, independent production companies have little problem raising funds to distribute their films nationwide. a) true b) false 47. describe the rise of globalization in mass media.

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