978-1285161594 Chapter 7

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques 8th Edition
Barbara F. Okun, Ricki E. Kantrowitz
Chapter 7. Introduction to Strategies
Chapter 7 provides an overview of the helping strategies derived from the theories discussed in
Chapters 5 and 6. In addition to describing and presenting case examples, the chapter suggests
skills and criteria necessary for the selection of strategies. Attention is paid to how helpers must
modify and adjust various combinations of effective strategies according to their own
personalities and preferences, but most importantly according to the needs of the helpee.
The strategies discussed in this chapter range from individual to interpersonal to
ecological/systemic, from commonsensical to complex. Strategies are categorized along an
affective-cognitive-behavioral continuum. Consideration is given to multiple contexts, as well as
the domain that is the primary context for the targeted objective and the domain that holds most
To be used effectively, all of the strategies discussed in this chapter require training,
supervision, and experience. However, it is important for helpers at all levels to have some
understanding of the range and purpose of the major helping strategies in current use so as to be
able to help people seek appropriate services and to interact effectively with other helpers.
1. To introduce students to helping strategies derived from the major helping theories.
1. Have students pick one of the irrational ideas proposed by Ellis and keep track of how many
2. Discuss the continuum of passivity-assertiveness-aggression. Explain how many people are
3. Discuss with students how they would set up a self-management plan for someone who
4. Ask students to share what strategies and techniques they use in their own lives to reduce
5. Teach students how to do diaphragmatic breathing. Have students place one hand on their
Exercises in this chapter give students the opportunity to try out a range of helping strategies.
Most are done in class using dyads, triads, or small groups. The final exercises ask students to
1. Have students find relaxation techniques, such as diaphragmatic breathing, online.
1. Recommend that students read Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy by David Burns
(Collins, 1999) to learn more about cognitive-behavioral theory and techniques. Many
2. The book Love’s Executioner: And Other Tales of Psychotherapy by Irvin D. Yalom (Harper
3. The DVD that accompanies Interviewing In Action in a Multicultural World, 4th edition by
4. The videotape Art of Integrative Counseling and Psychotherapy by Gerald Corey and Robert
Haynes, their student videotape The Art of Integrative Counseling, and their CD-ROM
1. Experiential strategies focusing on sensory awareness and imagery are especially effective
2. Change agentry may be an especially useful technique for:
3. Identify the correct pair:
4. Identify the incorrect pair:
5. Affective strategies:
6. The basis for responsive listening communication skills is:
7. Rules/guidelines for Gestalt therapy include:
8. Affective strategies are especially useful for:
9. All of the following are techniques of psychodynamic therapy except:
10. Brainstorming refers to:
11. Decision-making techniques are used in:
12. In Ellis’ A-B-C-D-E:
13. Reality therapy includes all the following except:
14. Meichenbaum’s stress inoculation approach includes:
15. Behavioral strategies:
16. Modeling is an example of a(n):
17. In a contract:
18. Systematic desensitization:
19. You pet a dog with much enjoyment. A child who has been very afraid of dogs up until this
point then pets the dog. This is an example of:
20. Which of the following strategies does not cut across domains:
21. Systems strategies may include all of the following except:
22. In the ecological/systems perspective:
2. Compare and contrast how a Freudian therapist and a Gestalt therapist would work with
3. How might a Gestalt therapist use the empty chair or the dialoguing technique? Give an
5. How might the type of transference pattern developed in the counseling relationship affect
7. Describe and define the A-B-C-D-E system developed by Ellis (rational- emotive behavior
8. How is homework used by rational-emotive behavior therapists to help clients change their
10. Suppose a client said “I can’t take the promotion because I will fail. I will be embarrassed
when everyone sees that I can’t handle it.” Use either techniques from Ellis or Beck to work
12. Create a situation between an adolescent boy and his parents where you might decide to use a
contract (his grades are low, he is staying out past curfew, he does not do his chores).
13. How would you use systematic desensitization to work with a client with anxiety about
14. Give an example of reframing the problem from a systems perspective. (page 208)
15. Write a six-eight line dialogue that could take place between a helpee and a helper using the

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