978-1285161594 Chapter 1

Document Type
Test Prep
Book Title
Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques 8th Edition
Barbara F. Okun, Ricki E. Kantrowitz
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 1 introduces the human relations counseling model in the context of the 21st century.
The chapter begins by describing the changes that have occurred in our society and the helping
professions. Particular attention is paid to the process of helping an increasingly multicultural
population, the settings in which counseling is conducted, and the current political, sociocultural
and economic factors impacting service delivery. The increasing pressures on individuals and
families as a result of societal change are elaborated, as is the accompanying need for more
human services. The ecological model, which examines the reciprocal influences of individuals,
their families, and the larger systems in which they are embedded, is presented as a framework
for understanding the impact of these interrelated influences on helpers and helpees.
The human relations counseling model can facilitate professional, generalist, and
nonprofessional human services workers to become more self-aware in order to build their own
healthy interpersonal relationships and to be effective as helpers. This model has three equally
important and interdependent dimensions. The first dimension is a process with two stages:
1. To help students understand that their personal values, history, and experiences in their
family, community, schools, work, and other relationship systems are embedded in larger
2. To introduce students to the dimensions and components of the human relations counseling
model in order to understand the helping process and their roles and functions.
1. Have students look at their own diversity. Since this book is used internationally, responses
will depend on where you live. In some classes, the diversity is obvious. In other classes,
2. Discuss the findings of your country’s recent census. How has your community, region, or
state changed over the last decade? Ask students to discuss changes they have noticed in
3. Have students create personal ecograms, using the diagram presented on page 2 of the
4. What are students’ experiences with health care accessibility in their area? Do they and/or
their friends and family members have health insurance? What mental health benefits are
5. Ask students to discuss when they, family, or friends have gone for emotional help in the
past. To whom have they gone? Remind them to consider all three categories of helpers
6. How would students decide whether to go to a psychiatrist, psychologist, mental health
counselor, social worker, psychiatric nurse, or substance abuse counselor? How would
7. Have students watch Dr. Phil or Dr. Oz, or anyone else in the media who gives mental health
advice. Do they find them helpful? Why or why not? Why do they think these media
8. On page 19 of the textbook, there is a discussion of equality and mutuality in the counseling
relationship. Do students think equality can be reached and maintained in a helping
9. Three domains of functioning, affective, cognitive and behavioral, are presented in this
textbook. Some argue that spirituality should be included as an additional domain. Discuss
10. Recent neuroscience findings emphasize the importance of physical fitness and sufficient
sleep as well as nutrition and social and intellectual stimulation for healthy living. How can
The exercises in this chapter are designed to help students become more aware of their
1. Go to Dr. Phil’s web site at www.drphil.com and read a transcript of one of his shows.
Critique it from the perspective of a client and from the perspective of a mental health
2. Have students go to at least two web sites for professional helpers. Have them answer the
following questions:
a) What is one piece of information that you had not known previously?
b) Compare and contrast the web sites. How do they differ in presentation and tone?
Web sites focusing primarily on American organizations include:
Mental Health Counselors www.amhca.org
Marriage and Family Therapists www.aamft.org
Human Services Professionals www.nationalhumanservices.org
If you are using this manual and reside outside of the United States, ask students to
research professional groups within your country or region. For example, if you reside in
3. Have students use the Internet to find a therapist. For example, have students check
www.helping.apa.org to find a licensed psychologist, www.metanoia.org/imhs/ for a list of
1. At the end of each chapter in the text, there is an extensive reference list, as well as
suggestions for further reading.
2. No specific recommendations for films are provided for this chapter. Recommendations will
be given for chapters 2-10. A web site created by Dr. Roland Atkinson, Professor of
1. Counseling models have shifted from:
2. The ecological perspective looks at:
3. Strategies aim to change functioning in which of the following domains?:
4. Which characteristic of effective helping has been constant over the past decades?:
5. All of the following are positive benefits of managed care except:
6. The conclusions of a November 1995 Consumer Reports Study are:
7. Recent neuroscience research has:
8. Communication skills are:
9. The ecological intake sheets ask questions about:
10. Professional human service workers include all of the following except:
11. Informal human service workers include all of the following except:
12. The single most important ingredient in the helping process is:
13. Psychiatrists are:
14. The common denominator of all helpers is:
15. Social workers have particular strength in their knowledge of:
16. Nonprofessional helpers:
17. The first stage of the counseling model focuses on:
18. Assumptions of the human relations counseling model include:
19. An integrated approach:
20. Which of the following statements is false?:
21. Equality in a helping relationship:
22. All of the following are part of the relationship stage except:
23. Successful termination occurs when:
24. The development of communication skills aids the helper in:
1. Briefly describe how the demographic changes in the 21st century will affect your role as a
3. Use figure 1.1 to view yourself according to the ecological perspective. Write a short
5. Give three examples of how resources and techniques have broadened for counselors?
6. John comes in to see you. He is married, has three children, and owns his own home. He
recently was laid off from his job. Using the family context quadrant of figure 1.1, what are
7. What are some of the skills that our schools teach best? What does this mean for the
8. What are the distinguishing features between professional, generalist, and nonprofessional
9. Compare and contrast the training and roles of psychiatrists, psychologists, mental health
12. Discuss the assumptions and implications of the human relations counseling model.
16. How does the helpee’s development of self-awareness increase his/her effective use of

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