Book Title
Looking at Movies 6th Edition

978-0393674699 Test Bank Chapter 11

August 15, 2020
Chapter 11: How the Movies Are Made
1. If a movie cost $150 million to produce, how much additional money will normally be spent on
marketing and distribution?
a. $50 million d. $150 million
b. $75 million e. $225 million
c. $100 million
2. As an investor, your primary concern regarding a film you are financing is
a. creating a quality film.
b. producing a film that is critically successful.
c. protecting your investment.
d. ensuring that there is continuity across the film.
e. making a film that is aesthetically rich.
3. What is the primary function of a script supervisor?
a. to arrange the financing of the film
b. to record details of continuity from shot to shot
c. to cast the actors
d. to oversee the work of the cinematographer
e. to supervise all postproduction activity
4. What are the three machines that bring images to the screen in three distinct stages?
a. camera, processor, shutter d. camera, projector, shutter
b. processor, projector, shutter e. camera, shutter, aperture
c. camera, processor, projector
5. Sound film is traditionally shot at ________ frames per second.
a. 16 d. 48
b. 24 e. 60
c. 30
6. As a filmmaker, if you make a film using an analog medium, this means that
a. the image is composed of pixels.
b. the image is composed of digits.
c. the image is a virtual representation.
d. the image is legible to the naked eye.
e. the image is not legible to the naked eye.
7. What is the largest format of film stock?
a. 8mm d. Super 8mm
b. 35mm e. 70mm
8. Very slow film stock
a. is also known as “reversal” film stock.
b. produces a grainy image.
c. cannot shoot in color.
d. requires little light.
e. requires a lot of light.
9. In traditional film production, the cinematographer controls the photographic image in which of the
following ways?
a. sound design d. actors’ performances
b. choice of film stock e. mise-en-scène
c. slow-motion
10. Which of the following is the key difference between digital and analog filmmaking?
a. Digital filmmaking does not require preproduction.
b. Digital filmmaking shoots eighteen, rather than twenty-four, frames per second.
c. Digital filmmaking uses a sensor to record images.
d. Digital filmmaking uses different size gauges to determine resolution of the image.
e. Digital cameras do not have a lens or aperture.
11. When a director consults with her cinematographer, it is primarily to
a. ask for advice about directing the actors.
b. inquire whether cost considerations prohibit potential setups.
c. check whether the contents of the script are being respected.
d. consider whether continuity is being enforced.
e. discuss how practical considerations will configure the aesthetic of the eventual image.
12. Which of the following statements are correct about digital technology?
a. Digital technology is more costly for distributors and exhibitors than film technology.
b. Digital technology is less versatile than film technology.
c. Digital technology uses more light than film technology.
d. Digital technology requires more laboratory processing than film technology.
e. Digital technology is cheaper to work with than film technology.
13. The preproduction phase is often associated with which of the following?
a. blocking and lighting rehearsals d. reviewing the dailies
b. shooting footage e. rewriting a script
c. marketing the film
14. You are obtaining the rights to a script, securing financing for a film, and hiring a cast and crew for a
production. This is part of the process of
a. postproduction. d. distribution.
b. production. e. exhibition.
c. preproduction.
15. During the production phase, the principal activities of a director generally include which of the
a. color grading d. sound editing
b. reviewing rushes e. arranging financing
c. developing a marketing strategy
16. As a director in the process of production, your job might generally include which of the following?
a. scouting locations
b. adding the musical score
c. breaking down the shooting script into manageable sections for each day of shooting
d. scheduling studio space
e. raising money to pay your employees
17. Which of the following production scenarios likely would require the smallest crew?
a. an exterior location scene involving multiple camera and lighting setups
b. an exterior location scene involving a busy city street during the day
c. an exterior location scene involving the creation of artificial snow
d. an exterior location scene involving two actors and one setup
e. an exterior location scene involving many extras and animals
18. The size of the crew ultimately depends on
a. how experienced the cinematographer is.
b. whether the film is on schedule.
c. union regulations.
d. the director’s preference.
e. the needs of the shot.
19. The three phases of postproduction include
a. editing, preparing the final print, bringing the film to the public.
b. editing, preparing the final print, repaying investors.
c. editing, bringing the film to the public, repaying investors.
d. editing, repaying investors, determining ticket prices.
e. bringing the film to the public, repaying investors, determining ticket prices.
20. The roots of the studio system in the first decade of the twentieth century can be traced to the
pioneering work of which of the following people?
a. D. W. Griffith d. Josef von Sternberg
b. Edmund Goulding e. Carl Laemmle
c. Thomas Edison
21. You are preparing your final print, making decisions about marketing, and exhibiting your film. You
are engaged in the process of
a. production. d. casting.
b. postproduction. e. directing.
c. preproduction.
22. Which of the following best describes the goals of the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC)?
a. promoting Hollywood abroad
b. seeking control of the motion picture industry by removing competitors
c. lobbying the government for freedom of speech
d. experimenting with new technologies
e. undermining monopolistic practices in the United States
23. Prior to 1931, typical Hollywood studios modeled this organizational structure
a. the producer-unit system.
b. the package-unit system.
c. the central producer system.
d. a hybrid structure that favored independent producers.
e. There was no formal studio structure at this time.
24. The producer-unit system typically included which of the following titles?
a. general manager d. sound designer
b. cinematographer e. actor
c. editor
25. Under the producer-unit system at MGM, a general manager would
a. liaise with subordinate managers to control the production process.
b. be on-set every day to supervise the shoot.
c. coordinate business practices with other studios.
d. inspect film stock to maintain print quality.
e. report daily to the executive manager.
26. By the mid-1930s, the five major studios were
a. Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, and RKO
b. Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, and Universal Studios
c. Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures
d. Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, and United Artists
e. Paramount, MGM, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, and Republic Pictures
27. A vertically integrated studio controls
a. production, distribution, and exhibition.
b. only production and distribution.
c. only production and exhibition.
d. only distribution and exhibition.
e. only production.
28. Which of the following best describes MGM?
a. It was a poverty row enterprise.
b. It is no longer in existence today.
c. Irving Thalberg was a senior executive there.
d. It was the largest of the majors.
e. Its backlot was so small that it had to lease soundstages from other studios.
29. Which of the following statements is true about United Artists?
a. Charles Chaplin was one of the founders.
b. Daryl F. Zanuck ran production from 1933 until 1956.
c. It was a major studio.
d. It was established to give artists less control over how their movies were distributed and marketed.
e. It was part of MGM.
30. Which of the following is a poverty row studio?
a. United Artists d. Republic Pictures
b. Universal Studios e. David O. Selznick Productions
c. Lionsgate Films
31. All of the following contributed to the decline of the studio system EXCEPT
a. World War II restrictions.
b. the rise of television.
c. an economic recession in the United States.
d. decentralized management structure.
e. federal government intervention.
32. The following statement best describes the central producer by the mid-1930s:
a. a delegator with complete financial control.
b. a delegator with no financial control.
c. a figurehead with no authority.
d. a micromanager with complete financial control.
e. a micromanager with no financial control.
33. Which of the following is true of the package-unit system?
a. It was an organizational structure that typically included several managers and individual unit
production supervisors.
b. It was typically embraced by independent producers.
c. It emerged in the 1950s.
d. It resulted in movies with a predictable technical quality and studio “look.”
e. It was only used by Warner Bros. and Columbia.
34. Which of the following best describes the package-unit system?
a. a modern invention that found favor in the 1990s
b. a model that studios used to resist independent filmmakers
c. a way of concealing the true costs of a production from East Coast financiers
d. a system pioneered by Irving Thalberg that propelled MGM to success
e. a personalized approach to film production that departed from the studio system’s model
35. You are a studio mogul prior to 1931. Which of these is NOT a reason to resist unionization?
a. Unions attempted to dislodge moguls.
b. Unions sought to break long-term contracts.
c. Unions tried to raise workers’ pay.
d. Unions threatened strikes.
e. Unions tried to gain more on-screen credit and recognition for studio workers.
36. What was the name of the 1926 agreement that stabilized relations between studios and unions?
a. Production Code d. Studio Basic Agreement
b. Paramount Decision e. Herriot-Hays Agreement
c. Paramount Case
37. To crew members working in the studio system, labor unions represented
a. an opportunity to campaign for better pay and working conditions.
b. a way of communicating more directly with the U.S. government.
c. a threat to their livelihood.
d. a major development of the 1950s.
e. a way of opposing strict division of labor.
38. Within the filmmaking process, what does division of labor refer to?
a. assigning professionals to particular activities
b. a highly inefficient method of production
c. a way for studios to lower pay scales
d. one reason for the decline of the studio system
e. a method Hollywood used to combat the rise of television
39. Professional organizations in the motion picture industry engage in which of the following activities?
a. seek equity in pay and working conditions
b. assist with the rating system in film regulation
c. protect artists’ rights amid the industry’s conversion to digital production
d. support the recognition of outstanding achievements of their members to the Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences
e. represent members in collective bargaining
40. As a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1927, your adopted mission is to
a. successfully integrate Hollywood with international filmmaking centers.
b. fight the perception that Hollywood is a prestige source of art.
c. improve the artistic standards of film.
d. report to the U.S. government about your business plans.
e. encourage independent filmmaking.
41. Which of the following is not a category Academy voters make Oscar nominations for and then vote
on to determine the winner?
a. Best Casting d. Best Sound Editing.
b. Best Live-Action Short Film e. Best Sound Mixing
c. Best Makeup and Hairstyling
42. As a historian studying the first twenty years of the U.S. film industry, what is the main business trend
you notice?
a. geographical dispersal of studios
b. growth in size of production companies from individual-owned to corporate
c. rise in West Coast financial investment
d. instability among production units
e. decline in the role of producers
43. Which of the following best summarizes the arrangement of financing in Hollywood today?
a. It is strictly aligned to money invested by a studio.
b. It is strictly aligned to money invested by venture capitalists.
c. It is largely unchanged since the golden age studio system.
d. Only one person can claim on-screen credit for serving as line producer.
e. It can combine funding from a producer and external business interests.
44. The ratio between above-the-line costs and below-the-line costs in today’s film budgets is generally
a. 30:70. d. 60:40.
b. 40:60. e. 70:30.
c. 50:50.
45. You are invited to a preview screening for an upcoming film. Which of these might you be asked to
a. Fill out a questionnaire.
b. Discuss promotional strategies with the marketing team.
c. Laugh at particular points in the film.
d. Meet with the actors.
e. Supply your name for an on-screen credit.
46. You are a producer previewing your film. Based on the responses of your focus group, you may
a. decide to make changes to the final cut.
b. reduce the budget of your film.
c. fire your director.
d. reshoot the entire film with a new cast.
e. rewrite the script of the film.
47. Vertically integrating your business operations allows you to
a. reduce the space demands of your business.
b. control all aspects of production, distribution, and exhibition.
c. fire most of your staff to lower your expenses.
d. encourage healthy competition in the marketplace.
e. win favor from governmental agencies.
48. Which of the following is an important job in the last weeks of postproduction?
a. setting a release date for the film d. determining above-the-line costs
b. casting the film e. shooting the film
c. location scouting
49. You are a historian studying changes in the budgeting system between the old studio system versus
today’s independent system. What is your primary conclusion?
a. There is almost complete continuity in financial practices.
b. Today there is more interaction between producers and assistant directors.
c. The studio system model was less corrupt than its contemporary counterpart.
d. Directors gain complete autonomy by nature of the financial process.
e. Creativity extends only to production practices and not financial activities.
50. As an executive of a contemporary production company, screening the answer print to preview
audiences is most useful because
a. it allows you to control the reception of your film.
b. it boosts your market share within the industry.
c. it generates salient data about how particular audiences might respond to your film.
d. it is a new approach that breaks with studio system-era practices.
e. it reveals what your eventual gross will be.
51. What is the main reason the U.S. box office made more money in 2013 than in 2012?
a. More movies were shot in 3-D.
b. Ticket prices were higher.
c. There were more movies targeting the 2 to 11 year old demographic.
d. More movies were part of a franchise.
e. There were more LGBT characters portrayed on screen.
52. Which of the following best describes the rating system implemented by the Motion Picture
Association of America?
a. It arbitrarily assigns value judgments about films.
b. It has no effect on the marketing of a film.
c. It significantly affects the potential size of a film’s future audience.
d. It evaluates the adaptation of a script to the final film.
e. It is mandated for all films exhibited in the United States.
53. Issuing a film in limited release in first-run theaters in major cities is typically used to
a. discern whether it will find favor with moviegoing audiences.
b. begin the release platform for a large-budget blockbuster.
c. write off a film the studio considers to have few commercial prospects.
d. end the theatrical run of a film.
e. get the film in as many markets as quickly as possible.
54. As a studio producer seeking the largest possible audience for your film, which of the following movie
ratings is least beneficial for you?
a. PG-13 d. G
b. R e. PG
c. NC-17
55. Which of the following does the production system in Hollywood today share with that of golden age
studio system?
a. Both engage in vertical integration.
b. Both systems have DreamWorks and Sony as major studios.
c. Both employ large numbers of contract employees in the creative arts and crafts.
d. Both compel independent producers to distribute movies through them if they want to reach the
largest possible audience.
e. They both have rigidly structured factory operations.
56. Of the 718 movies released theatrically in 2016, how many were produced by the major studios?
a. 36 d. 400
b. 139 e. 421
c. 288
57. You are a producer whose film contains material that is clearly for adults only. Your film will likely
receive a rating of
a. G. d. R.
b. PG. e. NC-17.
c. PG-13.
58. You are a producer whose film contains scenes parents might not like for their young children. Your
film will likely receive a rating of
a. G. d. R.
b. PG. e. NC-17.
c. PG-13.
59. How are independent producers reliant on the “big six” studios?
a. Distributing through the “big six” gives independents the largest possible audience.
b. High-end production equipment can only be rented through the “big six.”
c. Only films distributed by the “big six” can get an MPAA rating.
d. The “big six” control most alternate means of distribution, including Netflix and Amazon.
e. Members of labor unions are only allowed to work for the “big six.”
60. You are a movie producer making a blockbuster production with a budget of $200 million. Which
studio are you most likely to be affiliated with?
a. Columbia Pictures d. Strand Releasing
b. Wellspring e. IFC Films
c. Kino International
61. You are a movie producer making an independent film with a budget of $100,000. Which studio are
you most likely to be affiliated with?
a. 20th Century Fox d. DreamWorks
b. Universal e. Zeitgeist Films
c. Paramount
62. How have movie franchises fed off TV franchises?
a. by giving popular TV characters a larger stage
b. by recognizing that audiences enjoy the development of a single story over a long course of time
c. by identifying which genres are more popular as franchises
d. by identifying new actors that will be popular with audiences
e. by recognizing that hiring the same crew for the whole franchise increases efficiency
63. In what way are the major Hollywood studios facing a challenge heading into the future?
a. Movie franchises are doing poorly.
b. Several studios and theater chains have gone bankrupt due to digital conversion.
c. Continuing to enhance the appeal of movies for the large foreign audience.
d. Tickets prices are going down.
e. Dwindling box office attendance for superhero films.
64. The largest foreign consumer of Hollywood films is
a. Germany. d. China.
b. Britain. e. India.
c. Japan.
65. Which of the following innovations was met with predictions that it would be the end of cinema?
a. the Kinetoscope d. digital distribution
b. CGI e. the rating system
c. 3-D
66. For studio system-era executives, television represented
a. a government-sanctioned opportunity to combine film and television production.
b. the opportunity to loan out their stars to television companies.
c. a threat to lure away their audiences.
d. a source of inspiration for scripts.
e. a source of inspiration for remakes.
1. Film technology involves a mechanical system that moves film stock through several machines: a
camera, processer, and a projector. Describe how these three machines bring images to the screen in
three distinct stages.
2. Outline the primary differences between film and digital technologies. What are the prospects for
digital cinema in the contemporary marketplace?
3. Describe the significant similarities and differences between the film and digital processes in the
production stage of filmmaking.
4. Why do the frame rates for silent film vary compared to sound film?
5. In 2015, almost 90 percent of the top 100 U.S.-grossing films were shot digitally and 100 percent of
those films were edited and otherwise prepared for release digitally. However, there is a small but
significant opposition to shooting digitally on the creative side from directors and cinematographers, in
particular. Which directors are resisting the conversion to digital and what solution did the Hollywood
studios come up with to address this issue?
6. What takes place in the preproduction phase of cinema?
7. What takes place in the production phase of cinema?
8. What takes place in the postproduction phase of cinema?
9. How did the post-1931 film industry organize its filmmaking process?
10. Outline the main differences between the operations of the majors and their institutional rivals in the
golden age studio system?
11. What were the key factors that undermined the golden age studio system?
12. What are the key factors in the marketing and distribution of a film?
13. Based on the 2016 U.S. box office, identify the demographic composition of the moviegoing audience
according to sex, race, and age.