The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans

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Tyler Gach
Study guide 2-4 Kottak, Chapter 10 & Film
Chapter 10: The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans
1. Explain the Out of Africa model of human migration.
The first theory, known as the 'Out of Africa' model, is that Homo sapiens developed first in
Africa and then spread around the world between 100 and 200,000 years ago, superseding all
other hominid species. The implication of this argument is that all modern people are ultimately
of African descent. The other theory, known as the 'Multi-regional' Model, is that Homo sapiens
evolved simultaneously in different parts of the world from original Homo erectus settlers. This
means that people in China descended from the Homo erectus population there, while
Australians may have descended from the Homo erectus population in Southeast Asia.
2. Outline the different theories relating to the advent of human behavioral modernity.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current
Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates. There are many
theories on the evolution of behavioral modernity. These generally fall into two camps:
gradualist and cognitive approaches.
3. Recall the advances in stone tool technologies and the first appearances of cave art in the

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