The access to the course paper

Type
Essay
Pages
2
Word Count
566
School
yale
Course
1338
Biology 1307 Exam I Study Guide – Origin & Diversity of Life, Microbes
Origin and Diversity of Life
1. How old is the earth? 4.6 billion years old
2. When did the first prokaryotic cells appear? First eukaryotic? 3.8 & 2.7 billion years ago
3. Be familiar with the three hypotheses for the origin of life discussed in class.
1. Oparin-Haldene (Miller-Urey soup) 2. RNA World 3. Metabolism-first
4. What was the Miller-Urey Experiment? What were its results? Why was it significant?
Primordial soup made organics found in cells
5. Who was Carolus Linnaeus and what did he contribute to our understanding of what a species
is?
Started morphology and Created binomial nomenclature
6. Who is Ernst Myer and what did he contribute to our understanding of what a species is?
Biological Species concept: Isolated groups that breed and fill a niche
8. When does the biological species concept NOT work?
Fossils, asexual, fine line, ring species, hybrids
9. How do new species originate?
Isolation + Evolution
10. What is reproductive isolation?
Prevented from breeding
11. What are examples of pre-zygotic barriers?
Geography/time-cycle/mating-ritual/physical-mating/gametic(invalid sperm)
12. What are some examples of post-zygotic barriers?
Sterility/bad-mix
13. What are the two types of speciation?
Allopatric (geography) / Sympatric (mating)
Viruses
1. What were the contributions of Edward Jenner? Martinus Beijerinck? Wendell Stanley?
Wendell crystalized sick tobacco sap / Jenner made first vaccine / Beijer came up with
“Virus” (poison)
2. What is a virus?
Non-cell particle made of genes and protein that can invade living cells.
3. What are the nonliving characteristics of viruses? Living characteristics?
Living: Replicate fast / can mutate / need cells to reproduce