Type
Essay
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9 pages
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2277 words
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Self-Determination for Learners Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

April 28, 2015
SELF-DETERMINATION FOR DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING
Self-Determination for Learners Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
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SELF-DETERMINATION FOR DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING
Self-Determination for Learners Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
In general, both evidence-based practices (EBPs) and research-based practices (RBPs) for
learners who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHOH) are extremely limited (Luckner & Sebald,
2013). Because learners who are DHOH are a low-incidence population in K-12 schools and
there are limited researchers with expertise regarding learners who are DHOH, very few EBPs
exist for students who are DHOH (Luckner, 2006). Given these limitations, it is not surprising
that even fewer studies consider post-secondary outcomes for this population. Yet, developing
positive self-determination skills is one of the primary indicators of post-secondary success
(Luckner & Seabald, 2013). For example, Garberoglio, Schoffstall, Cawthon, Bond and Ge
(2014) found a correlation between increased self-determination (self-beliefs, empowerment, and
autonomy) and the incidence of attending post-secondary schools and higher hourly wages for
learners who are DHOH.
While there are differing explanations for the decreased levels of self-determination for
learners who are DHOH, Sebald (2013) argues that language delays, lack of empowering
opportunities to contribute to classroom discussion and lack of self-regulation cause learners who
are DHOH to struggle with self-determination. Two strategies emerged from the literature to
address these deficiencies. First, the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement (IMAI)
provides a seven-step protocol to promote effective communication between learners who are
DHOH and those with whom they are communicating (Martens, Janssen, Ruijssenaars, Huisman,
& Riksen-Walraven, 2014). Second, through certain modifications to the physical classroom
setting, learners who are DHOH experienced increase engagement in academics and decrease
disruptive behaviors (Guardino & Anita, 2012).
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SELF-DETERMINATION FOR DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING
Purpose Statement
The primary purpose of this literature review is to examine how changes in
communication styles and the physical classroom setting affect self-determination for learners
who are DHOH and in-turn increase the opportunities for post-secondary success. Given the
extremely limited research available with respect to learners who are DHOH, this literature
review is not confined to a grade-level and any potential limitations will be discussed in the
synthesis section.
Literature Review
EBPs that increase self-determination skills help ensure success for learners with
disabilities as they move into post-secondary settings (Getzel, 2014). While there are numerous
definitions of self-determination in the literature, Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, and Wehmeyer
(1998) reviewed numerous definitions of self-determination in the existing literature and
summarized self-determination as “a combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a
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