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Literature Review on Training and Development

April 11, 2013
According to Casse and Banahan (2007), the different approaches to training and
development need to be explored. It has come to their attention by their own preferred
model and through experience with large Organisations. The current traditional training
continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees, in maintaining the
uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of
work and by recognizing this, they advising on all the problems, which reiterates the
requirement for flexible approach.
Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development
programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their
chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and
Desmarais (2007). According to Davenport (2006), mentioned in his recent studies that its
easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software.
Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and
developments. The content and the access are the actual factors for the process. It is a
representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice
in training development. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing
from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the
new meaning of information with electronic learning use. There is a survey confirmation
for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically,(Meister, 2001).
A manager is that what the other members of the organization wants them to be because it
is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the
management (Andersson, 2008, Luo, 2002). Most of the managers seems to reject a
managerial personality in support of the other truth for themselves (Costas and Fleming,
2009). It has been constantly used in the education of the employees and certification and
the training for the customer. The Internet is having a vast capacity to satisfy the needs of
the staff and to cut the cost because there are no binding needs of being present in the
classroom (Kiser, 2001.)
Though its not that difficult to see the use of internet as the in accessing all the learning
need. Specially, when providing training to huge number of staff, the net can be a lethal
tool to cut the cost big time. This shows the change from a fully pre-scheduled curriculum
in to open and just in time access (Anderson, 2000). The training content is changing from
being instructor centric in to learner centric which is, to be honest, more adoptable for the
learner to learn at their own pace (Gotschall, 2000). The theory of actively learning is
started with the propose inquiries of the problem where the participants in the procedure
attempt to make skills about the inquiries throughout chain actions and reactions (Yorks,
Shen and Edwards, (2004) You will hardly find any research into international training and
management development of Multinational Enterprises. Not only that especially into
Human Resource Management of Multinational Enterprises initiating from economies
other than Western market ones (Shen and Darby, 2004). Scullion and Starkey (2000) also
said that In the international arena, the quality of management seems to be even more
critical than in domestic operations, especially when it is related to the training and
development of the employees.
The training and development deals with the fostering, recognising, promoting and using
the international managers as the main issues include the international management
development scheme. The approach to international development and training
management, factors affecting approaches and promotion criteria to the development and
international training management can be expected for playing a main role in MNEs
because of the importance to develop a cross-national integrating operations and corporate
culture. The inter-unit linkages can be enhanced by the global firms to create a pool of
global managers from anywhere in the world, Bartlett and Ghoshal (2000). It is also
important sometimes to join the international experience for the management development.
The International experiences had become a traditionally essential to the senior
management in most of the Western multinational companies, (Forster, 2002).
There are a number of reasons why a detailed study of the current trends in training and
development would be of interest to many organisations. First, whilst recruitment and
retention has been a focus of much research according to (Barber et al., 2005; AGR, 2006;
Dawson et al., 2006)and it also transitions to work, Holden and Hamblett,(2007) and early
careers (CIPD, 2006; Elias and Purcell, 2005; HESA, 2007), much less attention has been
given to detailed training and development. The subject have been dealt with as an element
of the employer brand in recruitment to achieve advantage in the increasingly tough
market, or as an instrument to improve retention, than an issue in its own right. Some of
the recent published research studies in by Connor et al., (2003) explained the greater
variety of approaches now being taken by organisations to training and development, an
outcome of trends in both the supply-side and demand-side. An opportunity to learn
developments further and also get an update of current issues for employers would be
timely. Studies have pointed the characteristics, attitudes, work preferences and
expectations and work styles of current trends of employees (Callender, 2003; CIPD, 2006;
AGR, 2006) but implications for the design and implementation of development schemes
have rarely been considered. The idea of generational differences is overstated here by
some writers who acknowledged that experiences today are very different from those of a
few years back, and different approaches to training and development are required (King,
(Connor et al., 2003) have questioned that changes have gone far enough and employers
have not responded to the realities of higher trainings in their talent management strategies
(Brown and Hesketh, 2004). Hayman and Lorman (2004) debates in due course that the
recent years development have notonly grown in popularity but have demonstrably more
accelerated career progression rather direct developments. While some other indicates that,
they do not necessarily result in satisfied theories (Mc Dermott et al., 2006) or command
long term and achievable organisational goals. (Cappelli, 2001), but many were
dissatisfied that such theories can express themselves effectively (Archer and Davidson,
The meaning of a Manager in organisation, according to research (e.g. Collinson, 2003;
Thomas and Linstead, 2002; Watson, 2001), is not a simple to describe. To be honest many
researchers question the definitive state of managerial being at all, and characterized by a
constant state of fluidity. Which will be based on permanence and stability (Alvesson and
Willmott, 2002), In short, Identity of a Manager can be described as constantly emerging,
as a process of becoming rather than a state of being. The common understanding is that
management is something that is clearly identifiable, for example, as a collection of
competencies, or as a particular set of roles (e.g. Quinn et al., 2003). This findings are
given in management training, as it implies that management is something that can be
learned through courses and training (Andersson, 2005). The managers learn mainly
through practice in a durable process of regularly becoming a manager (Watson, 2001),
which continues throughout the managers working life (Mintzberg, 2004).
The stepping stone to department manager programme is design to provide clear guidance
to the candidates who are ready to progress further.Becoming a Manager also means
shifting the focus from external factors to internal, site dependent factors (Schatzki, 2005),
management proof for development are processual and situational (Andersson, 2008a).
The work atmosphere of managers can be described by shifting demands which challenges
their identities (Tengblad, 2002, 2006). It simply means that they usually struggle daily
with different circumstances and relationships at work (Sveningsson and Alvesson, 2003).
A question might also be answered in relation to an ideal management material (Boyatzis
and Akrivou, 2006).
The role of HR professionals in the training and development process is stress-reduction
and the strategies have been emphasized in recent past. For example, Gilbreath (2008) has
argued about HRD (human resource development) professionals have an important role to
play in creating healthy environments for the training sessions of related developments
using interventions such as and action research. Francis and Keegan (2006) wants the HR
professionals to provide a typical contribution to the well-being of employees and by
reducing levels of employee stress they must promote health and well-being. some writers
have resolute specifically on work-life balance and the contribution Human Resources
Development professionals can offer in reducing employees stress by conflicts between
work and family life (Grzywacz and Carlson, 2007; Pitt-Catsouphes et al., 2007).
According to Nicola Mindell (1995), most of the organizations looks training and
development as a region of the department of Human Resource.Its responsibility should be
given to the line managers. The organisational training and support are essential for
expatriates for doing a good job in the assignments (Hurn, 2007; Osman-Gani and Tan,
2005; Selmar, 2005;). Late reactions to the development of technique, change in the
market, machinery and under-utilized plant capacity and recruitment problems in a

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