Lectureslides2.pdf

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Lecture 2
States of Consciousness
HP 1000
Dr. QU Li
1
Consciousness
Consciousness - a persons awareness of
everything that is going on around him or
her at any given moment.
Waking consciousness - state in which
thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear,
organized, and the person feels alert.
Altered state of consciousness - state in
which there is a shift in the quality or
pattern of mental activity as compared to
waking consciousness.
2
“stream of consciousness”
William James
the conscious mind carrying a stream of ever-
changing sensations, perceptions, thoughts,
memories, feelings, motives and desires.
includes awareness of ourselves and of stimulation
from the environment and can include physical
sensations from within.
Consciousness has two levels:
an area of focus that included whatever is being
attended to
a peripheral consciousness, encompassing the feelings
and associations that give meaning and context to the
focus
Freuds Levels of
Consciousness
Nonconscious level
Process that does not involve conscious processing (e.g.,
heart rate, breathing, control of internal organs)
Conscious level
Mental processes of which we are aware of
Unconscious level
Many levels of processing that occur without
awareness
Preconscious level
Information that is not currently in consciousness, but
can be brought into consciousness if attention is called
to it
Personality
Id, impulsive, irrational
part of the personality
whose mission is to
satisfy the instincts
Immediate gratification
Newborns, an inherently
selfish creature “driven”
by instincts
Personality
Ego
Emerge during first 3 years
Rational side, based on the
reality principle; Tries to find
realistic ways to gratifying the
instincts
Psychic energy is diverted from
the id to energize cognitive
processes such as perception,
learning, and problem solving
Understands that other people
have needs and desires and that
sometimes being impulsive or
selfish can hurt us in the long
run
Personality
Superego
Emerge between 3 to 6
years
Moral side, based on the
individual’s internalized

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