intervention. These include damage to coral reefs and mangrove swamps, loss of land use
and restoration of the coastal zone. Total damage and losses of this disaster – net of
environmental impact are $3.9 million.
Published by Asian Development Bank. Retrieved November 19, 2010
In heavily industrialized countries industrialization poses a threat to the environment.
Since the industrial revolution, industrial and mining operations have been accompanied
by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If
improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental
consequences. In the United States, the amount of hazardous waste generated by
manufacturing industries in the country has increased from an estimated 4.5 million tons
annually after World War II to some 57 million tons by 1975. By 1990, this total had shot
up to approximately 265 million tons. This waste is generated at every stage in the
production process, use and disposal of manufactured products. Thus, the introduction of
many new products for the home and office - computers, drugs, textiles, paints and dyes,
plastics - also introduced hazardous waste, including toxic chemicals, into the
environment. These, too, must be managed with extreme care to avoid adverse
environmental or human health impacts. The EPA estimated in 1980 that more than 70,000
different chemicals were being manufactured in the U.S., with some 1,000 new chemicals
being added each year. The human health and environmental impacts of many of these
chemicals are largely unknown.
Texas Environmental Almanac, Chapter 9, Industrial Waste, Page 1
These statistics are staggering. The United States of America did not sign the Kyoto
Protocol, one wonders if large, developed, industrialized nations are really serious about
environmental protection. Developed nations move their operations to other countries and
show the same indifference to their environment. Environmental protection must be taken
seriously to prevent human suffering and tragedy. The industrial accident at Bhopal in
India is still today regarded as the most tragic in history.
Between 1977 and 1984, Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL), located within a crowded
working class neighborhood in Bhopal, was licensed by the Madhya Pradesh Government
to manufacture phosgene, monomethylamine (MMA), methylisocyanate (MIC) and the