3 pages
Word Count
907 words
Sabah, University of Mal
Course Code
Human Resource Economics

IR 4.0 and exports

June 26, 2020
Empirical review
1. The relationship between Industrial Revolution 4.0 and export
Our study aims to find out about the relationship between industrial Revolution 4.0, specifically in terms
of revolutionised tehcnology, and export in China between the year 1988 and 2018. A few studies related
to this objective has also been done by past reseachers. According to Papachashvili (2018), technology
has helped transform modern trade and enable Global Value Chains by greatly reducing communication,
co-ordination and transport costs. The researcher added that, taking consideration of changes in
technological, social and business paradigm assures us in the greatest importance of Industry 4.0 for the
future development.
According to past studies by Wignaraja (2012), the researcher recognizes the importance of
innovation and learning for exporting manufactures, especially in developing countries like China. He
added that innovation and learning at the firm-level in developing countries is often defined as the
acquisition of technological capabilities for instance, the successful transfer of a new technology to a
developing country.
Wingaraja’s (2012) findings suggest that China’s remarkable success in the export of automobiles
and electronics since initiating an open-door foreign direct investment (FDI) policy in 1978 is linked to
technology transfer from multinationals; systematic investments in and upgrading of minor technological
activities. Studies from Guan and Ma (2003) reported that China’s share of world automobile exports
increased from 0.6% to 2.8% between 2001 and 2009, while that for electronics increased from 5.8% to
9.7% after being facilitated by massive technology transfer.
Studies by Wang et al. (2013) has also researched that technology profiles or company

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