9 pages
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K J Somaiya
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Hofstede Model For Middle East

January 11, 2021
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Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Middle East Countries
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Recent years have seen increasing interest in the consequences of culture for global marketing and
advertising, communication, organization growth etc. Many recent studies point at the necessity
of adapting branding and advertising strategies to the culture of the consumer. In order to
understand cultural differences, several models have been developed of which the Hofstede model
is the most used. Globalization is still a familiar concept today. All kinds of technological
developments enable people to communicate with each other throughout the world and this also
applies to organizations. Globalization, communication and organizations are therefore
accompanied by different cultures. People who work in international business may be taken by
surprise when they learn how people behave in different cultures. According to Geert Hofstede
culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. This report describes elements of this
model that are most relevant for the Middle East countries.
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According to Geert Hofstede, there is no such thing as a universal management method or
management theory across the globe. Even the word management has different origins and
meanings in countries throughout the world. Management is not a phenomenon that can be isolated
from other processes taking place in society. It interacts with what happens in the family, at school,
in politics and government. It is obviously also related to religions and to beliefs about science. To
understand management in a country, one should have both knowledge and empathy with what's
happening in the society. The scores of the unique statistical survey that Hofstede carried out make
everybody aware that people in other countries may think, feel and act very differently from them
even when confronted with basic problems of society. The area we have focused at in this report
are the Middle East countries. First we will have a brief about how Hofstede ranked the countries
and then will see what the current scenario in Middle East is.
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I. Introduction
II. Methodology
III. Comparison of Middle East Countries
IV. What’s going on in Middle East now?
V. Recommendation
VI. References
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Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural
communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a
society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior,
using a structure derived from factor analysis. Hofstede developed his original model as a
result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide survey of employee
values by IBM between 1967 and 1973. Hofstede's work established a major research
tradition in cross-cultural psychology and has also been drawn upon by researchers and
consultants in many fields relating to international business and communication. The
theory has been widely used in several fields as a paradigm for research, particularly in
cross-cultural psychology, international management, and cross-cultural communication.
It continues to be a major resource in cross-cultural fields. It has inspired a number of other
major cross-cultural studies of values, as well as research on other aspects of culture, such
as social beliefs.
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In order to understand the cultural differences between people of different countries, Geert
Hofstede started a large survey study within the IBM organization in 56 countries in 1970. His
survey study has provided us with an insight into other countries and cultures, especially with
respect to effective interactions between people. After more than 1.000 interviews and a variety of
angles, the model of the Hofstede Cultural Dimensions emerged. Initially, four dimensions were
identified; later a fifth and sixth dimension was added to the Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. In
successive studies these Hofstede Cultural Dimensions were identified for 76 countries. Each
country has a scale from 1 to 100 for each dimension. The higher the score, the more the dimension
in question emerges in the culture. The Hofstede Cultural Dimensions are set out in a structural
model using a versus construction.
Countries in Consideration: United Arab Emirates, Jordan and
Saudi Arabia
Power Distance Index (PDI):
The definition of power distance within the Hofstede Cultural Dimensions refers to the measure
of inequality that exists- and is accepted by people with and without power. This represents the
inequality (high versus low), but in the sense of acceptance. A high PDI score indicates that a high
power distance can be observed in which the conclusion can be drawn that there is great inequality
in society (culture). Strong hierarchical relationships, displays of little respect and authority can
be traced back to most Asian countries. A low score represents a low power distance. Here equality
can be perceived and this can mainly be traced back to European countries.
The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, with a score of 95 and 90 respectively, Jordan with
a score of 70 is considered high in PDI dimension it means that people accept a hierarchical order
in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which
everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power
Distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for
inequalities of power.
Individualism versus collectivism (IDV):

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