Type
Essay
Pages
9 pages
Word Count
3510 words
School
Chapman University
Course Code
HIST 310

Hist 310 Notes

November 25, 2020
LONG-DUREE CHANGES IN EUROPE III
Social: shifting and expanding social groups
The “nation’: an “imagined community” coming into being through print capitalism
Wider social networks through increased trade and communication
Growing cities(but still only about 20% of Europeans live in cities)
“Aristocrats”(rich landowners) joining the old “nobility” (landowners with ancient
titles and lineage)
Growing merchants bourgeoisie (middle class)
Peasants (seigneurial workers) becoming proletarians (wage workers)
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION:
THE RADICAL DISCONTINUITY
“Republicanism, democracy, terrorism, nationalism, and military dictatorship all took their
modern form during French revolution.”
These ideas were spread by french armies, and by revolutionaries in other countries.
For europe, the french revolution marks the beginning of “beginning of” modern history”-
or “modernity” the
Not finished with notes
CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION
Fiscal crisis of the french monarchy
Social tensions within the estate system in France
Critical ideas spread through the Enlightenment, circulated in book, pamphlets, posters,
discussion.
A mismatch in the distribution of political, social, and economic power- and the means and
opportunity for various groups to attempt to change that mismatch
THE COURSE OF THE REVOLUTION
The “moderate” Phase, 1789-92:
From 1789, the fiscal crisis spirals into a political crisis, which broadens into a wider
social crisis
The tennis Court oath, the declarat
Not finished with notes
The radical Phase, 1792-4:
The King tries to flee but is caught; France goes to war against Austria and Prussia;
economic crisis in rising food prices
In response, the Jacobins seize control, execute the King and Queen, end the
monarchy, implement price controls and a levee en masse (widespread draft)
Cultural Revolution; the jacobin Calendar (year 1=1792), reformed family laws and
religious toleration
The terror and the Thermidorian Reaction
The reactionary and Napoleonic Phases: 1794-1815
Return to some kind of stability from 1794-99
Napoleon seizes power through coup d’etat, 1799, rules as first council until declaring
himself Emperor in 1804
Steady rollback of most Revolutionary changes:
Democracy ended
Progressive family laws rescinded (though some changes remained in divorce
and property rights)
Political speech and associations suppressed
But simultaneous exportation of Revolutionary principles
NEW POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES
Conservatism (the revolution was terrible):
Fear of radical change; questioning the notion of equality of all humans
Liberalism(the revolution started out okay, but then went bad):
Reforms rather than revolution; defense of right of liberty in the economic sphere
Radical democracy (the revolution was okay, but didn’t go far enough):
Free, equal, universal male suffrage (and eventually female) suffrage
Communism ( the revolution much include economic change):
Equality could not be achieved without moving beyond the political to the
economic realm
Frankenstein
Cioc
Scott
Social class
Nobility/aristocracy = land owners
bourgeoisie/ middle class = Capital
Proletariat =land less, capital less, labor
(peasants)
Bourgeoisie starts to take over nobility through the french revolution
Industrialization
7x more people
10-15x more stuff
200 years
Possible because energy
Organic economy (anything that relies on the sun)[flow of energy], mineral economy(coal, oil,
gas, chemicals)[stockpile of energy], flow of energy
Liberation
Individual commerce most natural way to interact
The Ancien Régime (Old Regime or Former Regime) was the social and political
system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th
century until the latter part of the 18th century under the late Valois and Bourbon
dynasties.
The estates of the realm were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in
Christian Europe from the medieval period to early modern Europe. Different
systems for dividing society members into estates evolved over time. The
best-known system is the three-estate system of the French Ancien Régime.
The First Estate comprised the entire clergy, traditionally divided into “higher”
(nobility) and “lower” (non-noble) clergy. In 1789, it numbered around 130,000
(about 0.5% of the population).
The Second Estate was the French nobility and (technically, although not in
common use) royalty, other than the monarch himself, who stood outside of the
system of estates. It is traditionally divided into “nobility of the sword” and “nobility
of the robe,” the magisterial class that administered royal justice and civil
government. The Second Estate constituted approximately 1.5% of France’s
population
The Third Estate comprised all of those who were not members of the above and
can be divided into two groups, urban and rural, together making up 98% of
France’s population. The urban included the bourgeoisie and wage-laborers. The
rural included peasants.
The French estates of the realm system was based on massive social injustices
that were one of the key factors leading up to the French Revolution.
Ancien Régime
The Ancien Régime (Old Regime or Former Regime) was the social and political system established in
the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the latter part of the 18th century under
the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal social
and political order of the time elsewhere in Europe. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien
Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, and civil wars, but
they remained a patchwork of local privilege and historic differences until the French Revolution ended
the system. Despite the notion of absolute monarchy and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized
state, Ancien Régime France remained a country of systemic irregularities. Administrative (including
taxation), legal, judicial, and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped (for example,
French bishoprics and dioceses rarely coincided with administrative divisions).

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