5 pages
Word Count
1394 words
California State Univers
Course Code


February 19, 2021
Martinez 1
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified organisms, or GMO’s, have always been a debatable topic.
Genetically modified organisms are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially
changed through genetic engineering. This creates combinations of plant, animal, bacteria, and
virus genes that do not occur in nature or through traditional crossbreeding methods. A recent
article, Ethical Discourse on the Use of Genetically Modified Crops: A Review of Academic
Publications in the Fields of Ecology and Environmental Ethics,” gives information on GM crops
to overall contribute to the debate whether they are beneficial or harmful for the environment.
Specifically, a GM crop is an organism whose genetic characteristics have been modified by the
insertion of an altered plant gene of the same species or a gene from other organisms using
genetic engineering (Gregorowius et al., 2012, p.478). They contain genes that have been
artificially inserted instead of the plant obtaining it through pollination.
There are three authors to the research article which is expected in science. The authors
are Daniel Gregorwius, Petra Lindemann-Matthies, and Markus Huppenbauer. The article
includes a short summary of what their professions specifically are. Gregorowius is an affiliated
staff member at the University of Zurich’s Center for Ethics- Institute for Biomedical Ethics,
Lindemann-Matthies is a professor of biology and didactics at the Karlsruhe University of
Education, and Huppenbaur is also from the University of Zurich’s Center for Ethics (p.47). This
information that is given provides credibility for what the research article will state. The fact that
they stated they are researchers gives their audience the ability to trust them. They put their
information out there and their audience can make sure they are truly credible by researching
them using the information they stated about their profession. Because the research article
Martinez 2
contains so much jargon, it is not meant for just anyone to read. Those of us who do not know
terminology such as deontology or consequentialism” (p. 480) are not the intended audience.
Instead, those who are equal, those who are at the level of understanding on those subjects, are
the intended audience for the article. Other people would not fully understand the whole concept
of the article but those who are fully knowledgeable about the subjects know exactly what they
are talking about and what most, if not all, of their research findings mean.

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